This paper develops a methodology for trade policy analysis of costs and benefits of alternative regional integration scenarios. The methodology is based on the disaggregated gravity equation, which is applied to calculate the impact of the EU enlargement on integration strategies of non-member countries. In particular, the paper measures the impact of the 2004 EU enlargement from the standpoint of Ukraine - a country that has been lost in transition. This angle allows estimating the costs of non-integration that occurred due to trade and investment diversion, and forgone opportunity to carry out structural changes in the Ukrainian economy. According to the results, the EU accession would have had a positive effect on total export volumes and would have changed the composition of Ukrainian exports by almost doubling exports of manufactured goods by 2007. The costs of non-integration accumulate towards the end of the investigated period. Projecting the results into the future clearly indicates that the benefits of the EU accession for Ukraine would have been unambiguously positive and would overweight benefits of the CIS integration.
В статье рассматривается необычное свойство адыгейских сентенциальных актантов. В отличие от сентенциальных актантов русского и многих других языков, адыгейские сентенциальные актанты в сочинённой группе могут контролировать согласование по числу. Однако это согласование наблюдается в довольно малом числе синтаксических контекстов. Мы анализируем факторы, способствующие и препятствующие согласованию, и выясняем, что возможность согласования зависит, в первую очередь, от синтаксической позиции сентенциального актанта и от стратегии его оформления.
В центре внимания статьи - аграрная политика России. Общая идея: политизация аграрной политика является причиной стагнации сельского хозяйства
В статье рассматриваются вопросы генерального межевания земель в Российской империи.
В данной статье описывается задача слепого разделения сигналов (BSS): дано X∈Rm×N, задача BSS используется, чтобы найти A∈Rm×n и S∈Rn×N, где матрицы связаны как X=AS. Мы рассмотрели достаточные условия для структуры X, A и S с точки зрения редкости условий S, таких, что уравнение может быть решено однозначно (с точностью до перестановки и масштабируемости). Предлагается хиерархический 0-1 MIP для решения данной задачи. Вероятно, мы показали, что каждый последующий уровень иерархической MIP будет легче решить, чем предшествующий уровень MIP. Более того, мы представили тематические исследования, которые поясняют эффективность предложенного подхода решения для коррелированных редких источников.
The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Leach et al. (2008) model of in-group identification in two studies using Russian samples (overall N = 621). In Study 1, a series of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the hierarchical model of in-group identification, which included two second-order factors, self-definition (individual self-stereotyping, and in-group homogeneity) and self-investment (satisfaction, solidarity, and centrality), fitted the data well for all four group identities (ethnic, religious, university, and gender) (CFI > .93, TLI > .92, RMSEA < .06, SRMR < .06) and demonstrated better fit, compare to the alternative models. In Study 2, we examined the construct validity and reliability of the Russian version of the in-group identification measure. Results show that these measure have adequate psychometric properties. In short, our results show that the Leach et al. model is reproduced in Russian culture. The Russian version of this measure can be recommended for use in future in-group research in Russian-language samples.
The paper extends a classical result on the convergence of the Krawtchouk polynomials to the Hermite polynomials. We provide a uniform asymptotic expansion in terms of Hermite polynomials and obtain explicit expressions for a few first terms of this expansion. The research is motivated by the study of ergodic sums of the Pascal adic transformation. Bibliography: 10 titles.
This review essay focuses on the new monograph by S. A. Smith Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2017). As a leading expert in the social history of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Smith provides a comprehensive political, social, and cultural narrative of one of the central events in the global history of the twentieth century. Directed at a general readership, the book offers an excellent overview of existing Russian and Western scholarship, outlines the main course of events, introduces most important actors, and contains thought-provoking conclusions about the revolution. As seen from the title, Smith takes a longish view on the political rupture and includes a comprehensive analysis of social and political life of the Russian Empire, a brief overview of the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907) and the economic and political crisis of the First World War (1914–1918) before discussing the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Russian Civil War, and the period of the New Economic Policy (NEP). The book’s conclusion is a comprehensive essay attempting to comprehend the revolution and its consequences as a whole. As a nuanced social, political, and cultural history, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928 outlines the Revolution of 1917 as a tectonic shift which cannot be reduced to a simple change of the elites in the Russian imperial formation. Smith’s brilliant work will be invaluable for the students of history, both in Russia and abroad, and all those who are interested in global history in general and the Russian Revolution in particular.
Inspired by human learning mechanisms, a novel meta-heuristic algorithm named human learning optimization (HLO) is presented in this paper in which the individual learning operator, social learning operator, random exploration learning operator and re-learning operator are developed to generate new solutions and search for the optima by mimicking the human learning process. Then HLO is applied to solve the well-known 5.100 and 10.100 multi-dimensional knapsack problems from the OR-library and the performance of HLO is compared with that of other meta-heuristics collected from the recent literature. The experimental results show that the presented HLO achieves the best performance in comparison with other meta-heuristics, which demonstrates that HLO is a promising optimization tool.
The article discusses the overall interpretation of the War of 1812 and the heroization and deheroization of its key figures. Changing political circumstances, including the Tsars' orders concerning the representation of the Russian Empire's past and nationbuilding projects propagated by Russian elites constituted key variables. Between 1812 and 1914, preachers, artists, journalists, rulers, military officers, authors of memoirs, civil and military historians, writers and journalists participated in a dispute over the 'heroes' and 'villains' of the 1812 war. The present study draws on sources from the 19th and early 20th century such as the history of Aleksandr Michailovskii Danilevskii, the memoirs of Aleksei Er-molov, Nadezhda Durova and Denis Davydov, lyrics by Vasilii Zhukovskii, and Lev Tolstoi's novel War and Peace. It compares and contrasts these author's statements and ideas with the visual, poetic, journalistic and commemorative imagery of their time. Such an approach helps explain how heroic characters were designed and demonstrates the ambivalence of their positions: the frequently cyclical dynamic of appearance and disappearance from mainstream narratives of Russian history. This approach also allows for the attribution of individual narratives to specific discursive genres. Genetic source criticism was applied when analyzing War and Peace. Tolstoi's drafts and notes are examined to reveal the ways in which his concept of the novel changed over time, including gradual revisions in the shaping of characters and the use of the memories of war veterans to create a grand narrative. All this allows for an identification of the techniques Tolstoi applied when working with historical evidence, his recoding of the cultural and psychological profiles of certain characters, his retouching of contradictory elements, and his omission of a vast number of facts. The authors conclude that the heroization techniques applied in these narratives strongly depended upon the philosophy of history of their time. Thus, in the 1820-30's the trend towards romanticizing and nationalizing the Russian past manifested itself in a desacralization of Emperor Alexander I and a substitution of the idea of a "people's war" for that of a "holy war". By contrast, Lev Tolstoi's national project meant that the writer depersonalized war and heroized the Russian family and the Russian people. Later on, this discourse was reinforced through the sociologization of the writing of history, which meant that historians presented the war of 1812 as a clash of abstract interests, processes, and groups, to which the names of heroes served as accessories. © Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH, Stuttgart/Germany.