The article is devoted to the study of neologisms in advertising English and German discourse. The primary aim of the research was to single out the main tendencies of the use of neologisms in modern authentic English and German advertisements; to find out common features and distinctions between them. The typical features of the advertising discourse on different levels were studied using the examples taken from English and German advertising. With the help of the classification suggested by John Algeo the most productive patterns of coining new words were singled out. In advertising English those are compounding, affixation, abbreviations and clippings; while German copywriters rely on affixation and borrowings. For that purpose more than twenty English and ten German printed magazines of different types were analyzed, including women-oriented magazines. It goes without saying that the results of the research contribute to the formation of cultural awareness of not only students but also linguists and may be used in teaching English and German in the classroom of intermediate and advanced learners of the language.
В статье рассматривается семейство требований доверия к безопасности ADV_SPM «Моделирование политики безопасности», которое определяется стандартом ГОСТ Р ИСО/МЭК 15408-3-2013 «Критерии оценки безопасности информационных технологий. Часть 3. Компоненты доверия к безопасности». Обсуждаются задачи, решаемые этим семейством, и вопросы, которые возникают при попытке интерпретировать его требования. На простом примере представляется подход к формализации политик безопасности при помощи языка формальных спецификаций Event-B и инструментов платформы Rodin.
In recent years, several assistive devices have been proposed to reconstruct arm and hand movements from electromyographic (EMG) activity. Although simple to implement and potentially useful to augment many functions, such myoelectric devices still need improvement before they become practical. Here we considered the problem of reconstruction of handwriting from multichannel EMG activity. Previously, linear regression methods (e.g., the Wiener filter) have been utilized for this purpose with some success. To improve reconstruction accuracy, we implemented the Kalman filter, which allows to fuse two information sources: the physical characteristics of handwriting and the activity of the leading hand muscles, registered by the EMG. Applying the Kalman filter, we were able to convert eight channels of EMG activity recorded from the forearm and the hand muscles into smooth reconstructions of handwritten traces. The filter operates in a causal manner and acts as a true predictor utilizing the EMGs from the past only, which makes the approach suitable for real-time operations. Our algorithm is appropriate for clinical neuroprosthetic applications and computer peripherals. Moreover, it is applicable to a broader class of tasks where predictive myoelectric control is needed.
An initial-boundary value problem for the 1D self-adjoint parabolic equation on the half-axis is solved. We study a broad family of two-level finite-difference schemes with two parameters related to averages both in time and space. Stability in two norms is proved by the energy method. Also discrete transparent boundary conditions are rigorously derived for schemes by applying the method of reproducing functions. Results of numerical experiments are included as well.
A new fast direct algorithm for implementing a finite element method (FEM) of order on rectangles as applied to boundary value problems for Poisson-type equations is described that extends a well-known algorithm for the case of difference schemes or bilinear finite elements (n = 1). Its core consists of fast direct and inverse algorithms for expansion in terms of eigenvectors of one-dimensional eigenvalue problems for an nth-order FEM based on the fast discrete Fourier transform. The amount of arithmetic operations is logarithmically optimal in the theory and is rather attractive in practice. The algorithm admits numerous further applications (including the multidimensional case).