We consider the notion of number of degrees of freedom in number theory and thermodynamics. This notion is applied to notions of terminology such as terms, slogans, themes, rules, and regulations. Prohibitions are interpreted as restrictions on the number of degrees of freedom. We present a theorem on the small number of degrees of freedom as a consequence of the generalized partitio numerorum problem. We analyze the relationship between thermodynamically ideal liquids with the lexical background that a term acquires in the process of communication. Examples showing how this background may be enhanced are considered. We discuss the question of the coagulation of drops in connection with the forecast of analogs of the gas-ideal liquid phase transition in social-political processes.
There is a clear idea of how you can observe the patterns of eye movements. This is a dynamic and dynamic cognitive companion using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). Understanding how people live. This model provides a pre-frontal area for the colliculus. Our approach is to begin with. This is an analysis of the observer's task. Secondly, it is a state cognitive state. Finally, we’ve been able to make a difference. This is the only factor that influences observers' saccadic behavior. While the inclusion of the model, This is a list of the results obtained in the paradigms. It is capable of a saccadic simulation in real time. We have shown that it has been closely coordinated with those of human observers. It is important to note that it is not a problem. There are three ways to add top-down knowledge and knowledge. First of all, we’ve given the information system available to the visual system. This matches the influential signals by Milas and Cohen Annu Rev Neurosci 24: 2001 ) imple external shif shif Second, our model is a generative and capable of those found in visual search. Third, our model generates relative saccadic vector information as opposed to absolute spatial coordinates. This matches more closely together in the superior colliculus.
In this paper an approach to using unstructured documents intelligent processing at different stages of information system’s lifecycle is described. When documents are processed it’s suggested to use the results of semantic indexing. Every document is mapped to one agent that represents the interests of the document. This approach allows solving a wide range of problems which are appeared not only with the information system functioning but also system designing.
This paper analyses the spatial patterns of internal migration in Russia using data on net migration gain/loss in 2200 municipal formations (MFs) in Russia for the 2012–2013 period. These MFs are grouped into age categories that correspond with different life-course stages. We define 16 classes of MFs with similar migration balance patterns for multiple age groups and characterize the most typical classes. The results of our analysis show that age-specific migration patterns are determined by the spatial characteristics of MFs—in particular, a municipality’s localization in the centreperiphery system and the advantages of the geographic location (e.g., resort area, natural resources). We find that a city’s population size and administrative status are also important migration factors. In addition, we reveal differences in inter-regional and intra-regional migration and define their structural characteristics. An analysis of age-specific net migration contributes to our understanding of internal migration factors and allows us to assess the impact of migration on a municipality’s age structure. In large cities and regional centres, migration results in younger populations, while in peripheral areas, it speeds up population ageing. In most of the MFs that we analysed, the migration of youth and adults ‘moves’ in opposite directions. This factor accelerates the impact of migration on the population age structure in areas of destination and origin and significantly influences a municipality’s current and prospective demographic parameters as well as the population’s patterns of settlement and spatial concentration or de-concentration both nationally and regionally.
Изучается модель Кругмана Ядро-Периферия в общем случае с несимметричными регионами, для которого получена полная характеризация краткосрочных и долгосрочных равновесий. В предположении об отсутствии мобильности труда дается описание поведения номинальной и реальной заработных плат. Кроме того, показано, что относительные номинальные и реальные заработные платы могут как возрастать, так и убывать с ростом населения соответствующего региона. В предположении о мобильности труда дается исчерпывающее описание возможных схем эволюционирования экономики в зависимости от степени свободы торговли. Показано, что в случае значительной асимметрии в распределении аграрного населения между регионами, все мобильные работники с неизбежгностью концентрируются в регионе с большей долей аграрного населения.
Abstract The role of genes in the expression of aggression and masculinity traits in humans has been a focus of recent behavioral genetic studies. This is the first study on the variation in aggression, the digit ratio (the ratio between the second and the fourth digits, 2D:4D), the directional asymmetry in 2D:4D (DR-L) and polymorphisms of the AR, DRD4, and 5-HTTL genes in simple hunter-gatherers, namely the Hadza of Tanzania (142 adult men). The distribution of AR, DRD4E3, and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and allele frequencies in Hadza was compared to other African populations on which the data were available. Hadza and Ariaal differed significantly in the distributions of frequencies of AR alleles with different numbers of CAG repeats. Hadza population was similar to other African populations in the distribution of allelic frequencies of the DRD4E3 locus, and to Afro- Americans in the distribution of allelic types of the 5- HTTLPR locus. We found no influence of AR gene on the right hand 2D:4D ratio,DR-L, and any of aggression subscales of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Although, a weak positive correlation between CAG repeats and the left hand 2D:4Dwas found. The multiple regression analysis with digit ratios, DR-L and aggression subscales of AQ as dependent variables and the three gene candidates (AR, DRD4E3, and 5-HTTLPR) as independent variables revealed the following: men with lower number of CAG repeats had significantly lower left hand2D:4D ratio;men with highernumbers of 48-bp unit copies in exon 3 of a VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene had significantly lower digit ratios on both hands; no effect of the 5-HTTLPR gene on either the digit ratio or aggressive behavior. These findings demonstrate the complexity of gene effects on digit ratios and aggression and call for simultaneous analysis of more candidate genes. It is noteworthy that these results were obtained for a human population that is still practicing foraging and has been subjected to a high selective pressure due to harsh environments and practically has no access to modern medical care. Hadza are highly egalitarian, and their culture does not favor persons with a dominant or aggressive behavior. It is still to be found to what extent the relationships observed in this study are similar to those in other human populations.