В статье рассматривается семейство требований доверия к безопасности ADV_SPM «Моделирование политики безопасности», которое определяется стандартом ГОСТ Р ИСО/МЭК 15408-3-2013 «Критерии оценки безопасности информационных технологий. Часть 3. Компоненты доверия к безопасности». Обсуждаются задачи, решаемые этим семейством, и вопросы, которые возникают при попытке интерпретировать его требования. На простом примере представляется подход к формализации политик безопасности при помощи языка формальных спецификаций Event-B и инструментов платформы Rodin.
In recent years, several assistive devices have been proposed to reconstruct arm and hand movements from electromyographic (EMG) activity. Although simple to implement and potentially useful to augment many functions, such myoelectric devices still need improvement before they become practical. Here we considered the problem of reconstruction of handwriting from multichannel EMG activity. Previously, linear regression methods (e.g., the Wiener filter) have been utilized for this purpose with some success. To improve reconstruction accuracy, we implemented the Kalman filter, which allows to fuse two information sources: the physical characteristics of handwriting and the activity of the leading hand muscles, registered by the EMG. Applying the Kalman filter, we were able to convert eight channels of EMG activity recorded from the forearm and the hand muscles into smooth reconstructions of handwritten traces. The filter operates in a causal manner and acts as a true predictor utilizing the EMGs from the past only, which makes the approach suitable for real-time operations. Our algorithm is appropriate for clinical neuroprosthetic applications and computer peripherals. Moreover, it is applicable to a broader class of tasks where predictive myoelectric control is needed.
An initial-boundary value problem for the 1D self-adjoint parabolic equation on the half-axis is solved. We study a broad family of two-level finite-difference schemes with two parameters related to averages both in time and space. Stability in two norms is proved by the energy method. Also discrete transparent boundary conditions are rigorously derived for schemes by applying the method of reproducing functions. Results of numerical experiments are included as well.
A new fast direct algorithm for implementing a finite element method (FEM) of order on rectangles as applied to boundary value problems for Poisson-type equations is described that extends a well-known algorithm for the case of difference schemes or bilinear finite elements (n = 1). Its core consists of fast direct and inverse algorithms for expansion in terms of eigenvectors of one-dimensional eigenvalue problems for an nth-order FEM based on the fast discrete Fourier transform. The amount of arithmetic operations is logarithmically optimal in the theory and is rather attractive in practice. The algorithm admits numerous further applications (including the multidimensional case).
A perfect 2-matching in an undirected graph G=(V,E) is a function x:E→0,1,2 such that for each node v∈V the sum of values x(e) on all edges e incident to v equals 2. If supp(x)=e∈E∣x(e)≠0 contains no triangles then x is called triangle-free. Polyhedrally speaking, triangle-free 2-matchings are harder than 2-matchings, but easier than usual 1-matchings. Given edge costs c:E→R + , a natural combinatorial problem consists in finding a perfect triangle-free matching of minimum total cost. For this problem, Cornuéjols and Pulleyblank devised a combinatorial strongly-polynomial algorithm, which can be implemented to run in O(VElogV) time. (Here we write V, E to indicate their cardinalities |V|, |E|.) If edge costs are integers in range [0,C] then for both 1- and 2-matchings some faster scaling algorithms are known that find optimal solutions within O(Vα(E,V)logVElog(VC)) and O(VElog(VC)) time, respectively, where α denotes the inverse Ackermann function. So far, no efficient cost-scaling algorithm is known for finding a minimum-cost perfect triangle-free2-matching. The present paper fills this gap by presenting such an algorithm with time complexity of O(VElogVlog(VC)).