Phylogenetic models of primate social behaviour posit that core social traits are inherent species characteristics that depend largely on phylogenetic histories of species rather than on adaptation to current socioecological conditions. These models predict that aspects of social structure will vary more between species than within species and that they will display strong phylogenetic signals. We tested these predictions in macaques focusing on dominance gradients, a relatively little studied, yet central, aspect of social structure.We used data from 14 social groups representing nine macaque species living in a variety of conditions. We examined proportions of counteraggression and two recently developed measures of dominance gradients (hierarchical steepness) for phylogenetic signals in nine phylogenetic trees constructed using (1) available genetic data sets and (2) Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and maximum likelihood algorithms. Hierarchical steepness and counteraggression showed significant variation between species but inconsistent variation within species. Both steepness and counteraggression showed evidence of phylogenetic signals, with results being particularly strong for one steepness measure and for counteraggression. Our results suggest that between-species variation in some core aspects of social structure are shaped by species’ evolutionary relationships, despite differences in living conditions. As such, they provide broad support for the phylogenetic model.
A series of dates of unfolding of the first leaves and duration of the season of vegetation in the silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. (B. verrucosa Ehrh.)), as well as the duration of flowering of the bird cherry (Padus avium), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia), and smallleaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) for the period 1970–2010 in the central part of European Russia were studied in order to assess the trends. Differences in phenological responses to homogeneous climate changes in the trees of the same species from the northernand southern parts of the range were revealed. If spring events occur 3–7 days earlier in the northern part, nosuch effect is observed in the south. This fact can be interpreted as a manifestation of the different mechanisms of homeostasis in different populations determined by their biological characteristics (in particular, by the need to pass successfully the periods of organic rest and vegetation).
The generation of huge amplitude internal waves by the barotropic tide in the Barents Sea at high latitudes is examined using the numerical model of the Euler 2D equations for incompressible stratified fluid. The considered area is located between the Spitsbergen (Svalbard) Island and the Franz-VictoriaTrough as cross-section of 350 km length. There are two underwater hills of heights about 100 - 150 m on the background depth about 300 m. It is shown that intensive nonlinear internal waves with amplitudes up to 50 m and lengths about 6-12 km are generated in this zone. The total height of such waves is huge and they must be considered as a significant factor of the environment in this basin.