España en la guerra de la independencia de los EEUU vista por el Ministro plenipotenciario ruso en Madrid Stepan Zinoviev(статья)
España en la guerra de la independencia de los EEUU vista por el Ministro plenipotenciario ruso en Madrid Stepan Zinoviev
España y la Gran Revolución francesa evaluadas por diplomáticos de Rusia(статья) //España y el mundo.
Currently, the main source for the reconstruction of the most ancient history of humankind is archeology, which almost by definition makes it possible to restore only just a few elements of the most ancient human culture (naturally, almost exclusively – material culture). A mere introduction of comparative linguistic data makes it possible to significantly refine our reconstruction of a respective culture. If a certain linguistic Urheimat may be localized in space and in time within the area and lifespan of a certain archaeological culture, this suggests that we may have an idea of the language spoken by respective population, as the application of comparative linguistic methods allows us to reconstruct the vocabulary of the carriers of the respective protolanguage, that makes it possible to identify a set of terms denoting the realities of family organization, political attitudes, beliefs, etc. A very important part of the reconstructed vocabulary is constituted by the kinship terminology. As is well known (and as is demonstrated in this article again), the kinship terminology displays rather strong correlations with respective types of kinship organization, which could allow to reconstruct important features of clan and family structure of the respective populations. This reconstruction can be further verified by using archaeological and genetic data. It is demonstrated that the papers presented at the International Workshop ‘Murdock and Goody Re-visited: (Pre)history and evolution of Eurasian and African family systems’ that was organized in April 2015 by the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology suggest that we are close to having all the necessary ingredients to undertake such a program of a deep historical reconstruction.
Entro la metà del XIII secolo l'Europa medievale raggiunse un certo successo nell’approvazione del sistema repubblicano, nell'espansione del commercio mondiale, e nella transizione verso un'economia di mercato. Nei secoli XIII – XV si verificò l'espansione del commercio europeo con l'Oriente nella regione del Mar Nero, lo sviluppo di nuove rotte commerciali e la nascita delle colonie italiane nel Levante e sul Mar Nero. La stabilità portata dalla conquista mongola ebbe un impatto positivo sul commercio a lunga distanza, sopratutto nella regione del Mar Nero. La tipologia di merci esportate dalle rive del Mar Nero e dal Mar d'Azov era abbastanza ampia. L’intero commercio della regione era sotto lo stretto controllo dell’amministrazione delle colonie. I mercanti italiani si stabilirono nella regione settentrionale del Mar Nero perché i Khan dell'Orda d'Oro erano ben consapevoli dell'importanza del commercio internazionale nel loro territorio per il loro stato, e del grande e costante flusso di denaro nelle loro casse, proveniente dalla riscossione delle imposte di negoziazione. Caffa era il centro delle colonie genovesi. La redditività del commercio causò la migrazione latino-cristiana in Crimea. L’evoluzione e la trasformazione di questa migrazione è il tema del presente articolo.
Статья касается важнейшего фрагмента «Истории франков» Григория Турского, который иногда называют «древнейшим договором Франции». Речь идёт о договоре меровингских королей Гунтрамна и Хильдеберта II в местечке Андело в 587 г. Уникальность этого документа заключена в том, что он был помещён в необычный контекст раннесредневековой хроники и при этом более не встречается в собраниях правовых или законодательных текстов VI в. Находя сходство между формой и содержанием договора в Анделоте и публично- и частноправовым актовым материалом Средних веков, автор применяет формулярный анализ к тексту погодной записи «Истории франков» и сравнивает его с капитуляриями эпохи Каролингов. Выделение клаузул протокола, основной части и эсхатокола позволяет сделать предположение о том, что Григорий Турский в действительности присутствовал в момент его составления и заверения, а также располагал его копией на момент написания «Истории франков».
Among the negative predictors of sexual freedom, cultural complexity has been always mentioned as most important. However, regression analysis revealed the existence of a reverse trend within the interval between 11 and 22 points of Murdock's cumulative scale of cultural complexity. This suggests that it is senseless to try to find a general set of regularities regarding the correlation between cultural complexity and sexual freedom. One would expect to find different sets of regularities for simple, medium-complexity, complex and supercomplex cultures. In this paper we begin with a summary analysis of research conducted on simple societies, suggesting a model of relationships between cultural complexity and female premarital sexual freedom among foragers. We suggest that the underlying variable in this model is foraging intensification. This intensification appears to be one of the most important preconditions for the significant growth of cultural complexity among the foragers. As shown in the ethnographic record, this intensification mostly occurs through the development of hunting and/or fishing practices (i.e. in most cases predominantly male activities). This tends to lead to a decline in female contribution to subsistence which, in turn, appears to lead to the societal decline of female status. This, the general argument goes, contributes to the decrease of the female premarital sexual freedom. On the other hand, we argue that this is not the only mechanism explaining the negative correlation between cultural complexity and female premarital sexual freedom among foragers. The intensification of a foraging economy tends to lead to the rise of the wealth accumulation, and the growth of cultural complexity components such as the development of a medium of exchange and social stratification. This situation seems to “entice” the development of modes of marriage that involve the transfer of valuables/ services. The growth of social stratification appears to have an independent influence on the decline of female premarital sexual freedom among foragers. The growth of similar components of cultural complexity seems to lead to the development of slavery and polygyny, whereas the combined action of these factors appears to entice what we call "bride commodification" which against the background of declining female status appears, naturally, to lead to the restriction of the female premarital sexual freedom. The growth of such components of cultural complexity as political integration, fixity of settlement and community size seems to contribute to the decline of female premarital sexual freedom through the growth of social control (against the background of declining female status).
This paper is a featured review of three recent monographs written by three American historians of Islam in imperial Russia. These books propose unusual approaches and topics that give readers a more accurate insight into what Muslimdom really meant in late tsarist Russia. Previously scholars focused chiefly on the topics of Muslim resistance to Russian expansion, and controversies between Islamic “reformism” (jadidism) and “traditionalism” (qadimism). These problems were of great importance for specific Muslim regions in limited historical periods, but they do not exhaust all the diversity of topics concerning Islam in the imperial context. Taking Islam and the Russian Empire for natural antagonists, such a vision relied on the Orientalist approach representing Islam as a homogeneous and timeless entity opposing all non-Muslim cultures. New studies of imperial Russia’s Muslims look more at the interaction of Muslims with the Russian state and society and their changing religious identities. What ties together these very different books? Their focus is on the Volga-Ural region and the period of the late imperial transformation between the Crimean military campaign and the World War I. Sometimes they share primary sources of Russian and native origin. The Campbell’s monograph concerns the question of what imperial polity did about imperial Russia’s large Muslim population. Tuna and Kefeli’s works concentrate on Muslim answers of imperial challenges of confessional governance and religious conversion.
“Featured Review” of J. Arch Getty, Practicing Stalinism: Bolsheviks, Boyars, and the Persistence of Tradition
The author scrutinizes visual images of emeny and images of heroes created by Russian artists during the 1812 war. The research objects are colloqual metaphors, figures of speech, proverbs and ethnic stereotypes. Such approach allows to reveal new cognitive notions and trends of national imagionations.
Since the time of its emergence in the late 19th century, Korean feminism had close ties with the development of nationalism, which initially opposed the political conservatism of the Joseon Dynasty and later opposed the aggressive colonial regime that hampered the establishment of a nation-state. After liberation from the Japanese colonialism, Korean feminism developed within as pro-government, nationalistic ideology (conservative groups), and as the movement for democratization (progressists). The inextricable link between nationalism and feminism led to the creation of diversity of feminist concepts and views on the nature of women's liberation, which equally, though differently, was comprised by Korean nationalists. The liberalization of South Korean politics and economy at the end of 1980s – early 1990s resulted in the emergence of postmodern feminism, which raised essentially new issues of women's development such as the elimination of domestic violence against women, protection of rights of sexual minorities, elimination of discrimination against women in the labor market, etc. Thus, the evolution of Korean feminist ideology reflects the significant challenges of national development in the nation-building process.