The paper studies a big city as an independent central place system. For this purpose, the author has developed and tested a methodology for quantitative assessment of central functions based on an inte- grated set of the most important socioeconomic indicators. This methodology helped to prove the possibility of not only measuring the value of central functions in different parts of a big city, but also of determining the affiliation of all the system’s elements with different hierarchical levels or a service area. The study was based on the model of Moscow’s central place system. The study evaluated how the factor of the Russian capital’s considerable territorial expansion has influenced the dynamics of its central place system from 2009 to 2015. We have found that there is a strong interrelation between Moscow’s radial–circular structure and a relatively uniform reduction in the value of central functions with increasing distance from the city center, which is dis- turbed by the largest highways, which concentrate a significantly higher value of the key factor compared with neighboring elements.
This paper analyses the spatial patterns of internal migration in Russia using data on net migration gain/loss in 2200 municipal formations (MFs) in Russia for the 2012–2013 period. These MFs are grouped into age categories that correspond with different life-course stages. We define 16 classes of MFs with similar migration balance patterns for multiple age groups and characterize the most typical classes. The results of our analysis show that age-specific migration patterns are determined by the spatial characteristics of MFs—in particular, a municipality’s localization in the centreperiphery system and the advantages of the geographic location (e.g., resort area, natural resources). We find that a city’s population size and administrative status are also important migration factors. In addition, we reveal differences in inter-regional and intra-regional migration and define their structural characteristics. An analysis of age-specific net migration contributes to our understanding of internal migration factors and allows us to assess the impact of migration on a municipality’s age structure. In large cities and regional centres, migration results in younger populations, while in peripheral areas, it speeds up population ageing. In most of the MFs that we analysed, the migration of youth and adults ‘moves’ in opposite directions. This factor accelerates the impact of migration on the population age structure in areas of destination and origin and significantly influences a municipality’s current and prospective demographic parameters as well as the population’s patterns of settlement and spatial concentration or de-concentration both nationally and regionally.
This paper builds a theory of deregulation and roll-out of on-road competition in the public transport sector. Focusing on the dimensions of competition, ownership and authorisation, we identify five distinct regulatory regimes: public monopoly, regulated monopoly, unregulated monopoly, outsourcing to private monopoly and competition in the market. Our generalised theoretical framework allows for the direct comparison in the social welfare terms of the monopolies' outcomes and the fragmented market structure after deregulation. We formulate a set of parameter restrictions that make competition in the market preferable to public monopoly and competition for the market in the form of outsourcing. We also show the theoretical possibility of a ‘revised’ regulatory cycle forming a sequential transition between these identified regulatory regimes. Our model predicts possible policy reversals and the bypassing of certain phases of the cycle, that can occur due to technological advances, changes in fiscal constraints and institutional capacity improvements
The article aims to present social ties of the Republic of Bashkortostan based on voice cell phone data, which covers 12 million calls from and to the region during the first five days of March 2020. About 96% of calls are made within the republic and only 4% of them are interregional. The people of the Republic of Bashkortostan have close connections with those who live in neighboring regions (Orenburg, Sverdlovsk oblast, the Republic of Tatarstan and especially Chelyabinsk oblast). Being a part of the Ural Economic Region, the Volga Federal District and Volga-Ural Macro Region, the republic has turned mostly towards Ural regions. We also found that the republic has close social ties with Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg and Leningrad oblast, as well as Krasnodar kray, Samara oblast and two Autonomous Districts: Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets. We estimated the number of persons who possessed Bashkir SIM-card and were outside the republic during the research period – 183 thousand; the most of them were in the abovementioned regions. While conversation between residents lasts 50 seconds, which is among the smallest values, the calls to and from republics of Altai, Tyva, Khakassia, Sakha and Magadan oblast are 5-8 times longer. Overall, the communication pattern reflects migration flows and economic relations between regions. In conclusion, we postulate that cell phone data can be exploited as a source of social ties data.
Limiting factors of transport development in Siberia and the Far East are the different natural zonal and azonal factors, as well as particularity of economic and social development of these territories. The quality of transport communication between Siberia and the Far East and the rest of the country, as well as within the region in the 1990s is sharply deteriorated. Transport tariffs increased, while the intensity of air traffic decreased and a number of areas were cut off from the national system of land communication. Therefore, the study of current transport situation in the regions of Siberia and the Far East, particularly remote or isolated from the main territory of the country is important. The combination of permanent climatic and changing socio-economic factors excludes the universalism in implementation of the transport strategy of a particular territory. This study is granted by Russian Geographical Society and Russian Foundation for Basic Research №24/2018/RGO-RFFI, leader S.А. Tarkhov). Database of the intensity and nature of transportation in the 2 regions-keys – Krasnoyarsk and Sakha (Yakutia) Republic – was compiled. Its analysis conducts the macro-zoning of the level of transport connectivity, to identify isolated local and regional transport systems, and to distinguish their main types.
Целью статьи является анализ тенденций и динамики социально-экономического развития территорий по обе стороны от всех сухопутных границ России (протяженностью более 22 000 км) с использованием данных дистанционного зондирования и приложений ГИС в различных масштабах. Оригинальность этого исследования заключается в обработке больших объемов данных (изображения с разрешением 30 метров и топографические карты среднего масштаба) на обширных территориях и построении карт, позволяющих анализировать данные в новом масштабе. Периферийный характер большинства приграничных территорий является серьезным вызовом для развития приграничного сотрудничества. Депопуляция и депрессивное состояние их экономики не стимулируют контакты между соседними территориями. Авторы оценивают социально-экономическую ситуацию по обе стороны границ России и контрасты между соседними территориями в зеркале структуры и динамики землепользования, плотности населенных пунктов и дорог. Авторы приходят к выводу, что приграничное пространство подвергается дальнейшей фрагментации. Процессы на «новых» (постсоветских) и «старых» границах различаются своей скоростью и характером трансформаций. Их асинхронность быстро увеличивает асимметрию трансграничных взаимодействий.
В статье рассматриваются региональная диагностика как метод исследования социально-экономиеского пространства России, качество экономического пространства и его регионаьные различия, методы и инструменты устойивого развития регионов.
In this study, we analyzed the data about the technological diversification of export composition of upper middle-income countries and the impact of the technological composition of exported goods on GDP growth. Using the dynamic panel data analysis techniques for 34 countries between 1995-2015, we confirmed that exports of high technological products will have a significant positive impact on economic growth for upper middle-income countries as well as medium technological products’ exports which have a limited effect. The exports of low-tech products will have a negative effect for economic growth in the long run.