A modificated version of experimental scheme "double step" was used to study the decision- making process in saccade programming. Two short visual stimuli were presented sequentially in opposite hemifields (scheme pulse overshoot). The “pattern” of response (double saccade or single saccade at the second target) and latency of the first saccade depended on the duration of the first stimulus (150 or 50 ms). Positive ERP components were revealed within the interval 100 - 120 ms before the saccade onset by using the method of selective EEG averaging. These potentials can be considered as markers of the decision-making process. The parameters and topography of these components indicate involvement of the frontal-parietal neural network of saccadic control and frontal-parietal-and medial-thalamic activation systems of selective attention at the stage of decision-making process.
Few studies have examined to what extent commonly held stereotypes reflect real intergroup differences in motivational goals. Taking a values perspective (Schwartz et al., 2012), the study examines value preferences among Jews and Russians in Russia, to assess the extent to which commonly held stereotypes reflect values of group members. Results showed that Jews reported substantially higher levels of universalism‐tolerance, benevolence (both caring and dependability), and tradition values, and lower levels of power (both dominance and resources), and universalism‐nature values, than Russians. Results indicated that the widespread Jewish stereotypes of power, achievement, and rootlessness/cosmopolitanism are ungrounded, while the stereotypes of liberalism and particularism are upheld by the reported differences in the value preferences between Jews and the majority population in Russia. The present study underscores the importance of value comparisons between ethnic minority and majority groups for understanding their motivational goals and thus fighting prejudices and discrimination.