В статье исследуются роль счетоводства и реформы финансового управления в России в 18 в.
In this article the author considers only imagined gifts, those that never were presented in reality but nevertheless turned to be pivotal for many rulers, seeking to legitimize their audacious political ambitions. The best examples of such imagined gifts were those values and privileges that the popes allegedly received from Constantine the Great after his conversion to Christianity. The fictitious generosity of Constantine was invented in "his" famous detailed charter forged in the 8th or 9th century. But other imagined gifts, also possessing strong legitimizing effect, used to come into being in the same way, due to equally elaborated narratives. As the principality of Moscow was striving for regional dominance in the 15th and 16th centuries, a series of influential texts were composed, describing and explaining the gifts of extraordinary political and symbolic relevance, allegedly made either to ancestors of the ruling dynasty, or to predecessors of the highest church dignitaries. The most known among those writings are the anonymous Tale of the Nowgorodian white clow and the Tale of the princes of Vladimir, as well as the Epistle on the Monomachos Crown by Spiridon-Savva. These texts claimed that the secular potentates of Moscow, as well as ecclesiastical heads of Novgorod had been presented in the past with invaluable insignia, either symbolizing the succession to the Roman emperors, or testifying the special benevolence of God. As the author finally argues, the morphology of these imagined gifts was mainly the same as of those in the Donation of Constantine: no really new regalia were created, but the ones, already existing, were vested with quite new, and nobler, significance, able to ensure a higher level of legitimacy for their possessors. Therefore the ways, how such imagined gifts used to be invented, seem to be substantially identical throughout Europe.
В статье рассматривается современная российская историография в мировом контексте. Анализируются пути научного трансфера.
The article reconstructs the circumstances of adopting the first artistic conventions that allowed Russian artists at the beginning of the nineteenth century to create their first versions of the national past. The origin of new visual symbols such as national heroes, costumes, and typical ethnic looks is dated and their semantics deciphered based on the analysis of such sources as notes describing the motifs to be pictured in history paintings as well as patriotic press publications and pieces of history painting and sculpture. Their reception by the public and the complications of their subsequent verbal conceptualization are presented within the context of a controversy between the publishers of two art journals of the 1820s, Paul Svinyin and Vasily Grigorovich. Vishlenkova believes that the priority of visual language in the Russian national project had to do with the specific cultural situation of the Russian Empire, particularly at the turn of the nineteenth century. A low literacy rate meant that Russian elites could not rely on verbal language as a tool for mobilizing support and generating imperial, ethnic, and national solidarities. That's why students of nationalism find no convincing written evidence of a Russian national consciousness either in the eighteenth century or in the first three decades of the nineteenth. In contrast to their unsuccessful efforts, Vishlenkova’s analysis of the visual language of describing the past detects elements of the national imagination of the time at issue. The author defines the 1830s as a turning point in the evolution of Russian ways to see the national past: the convention between the artists and their audience changed, resulting in a substitution of document-based symbols for symbolic representations of the Russian past. This convention revision antiquated the early nineteenth century history paintings, and rendered the signs of the national employed in them incomprehensible.
The study explores the parameters and factors of internationalization of Russian historical science in 2000–2015. Through a bibliometric analysis of publications and journals from the Web of Science database the study assesses the overall representation of Russian historians in the international scientific community, and determines the usability of journal databases for the research of effectiveness of internationalization strategies.
In addition to the quantitative indicators (the number of publications and references), this research sets qualitative features of the articles of Russian historians: distribution by the type of the journal, top themes, changes in the content of publications during the analyzed period, as well as comparative profiling of the historians' publication activity per research and educational institutions, and countries.
В статье рассматривается история возникновения и развития в русской культуре одного из центральных концептов морального дискурса – понятия «справедливости». Специфика предлагаемого в данном исследовании подхода – в рассмотрении «справедливости» как элемента языковой игры, присущей определенному сообществу, т.е. через словоупотребление. В статье представлен историко-этимологический анализ на основе документов 11-20 вв.
The Political Organization of Rus' in the 10th Century This study is an attempt to present the political organization of Rus' in the 10th century reevaluating the much debated role of the Scandinavians in the formation of the Rus'ian polity. A large number of Scandinavians (mosdy from Sweden and Gotland) migrated to Eastern Europe in the 9th - middle of the 11th centuries. This fact is clear from the historical, linguistic and archeological evidence accumulated to date. However, much is unclear about the results and significance of this migration. Particularly controversial is the question if and how it came to be related with the formation of the political structures of Rus' which united a variety of peoples (gentes) in Eastern Europe in the 10th - 11th centuries. In this paper I examine the elite of Kievan Rus' in the middle of the 10th century. The original sources from that time give us some valuable information on the political organization and social hierarchy of Rus'. Two of these sources are of particular importance: the treaty of 944 between Rus' and Byzantium (a copy is included in the Tale of Bygone Years) and the description of the embassy of Olga, princess of Rus', to Constantinople in 957 given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in his treatise De Ceremoniis (II, 15). In my opinion there is some corresponding evidence on Rus' in these two texts which has not been noticed or articulated in the debates on the texts. Emphasizing these correspondences and referring to the witnesses of other sources I attempt a consistent de- scription of the elite of Kievan Rus'. I conclude that the Rus' of the middle of the 10th : century was, politically and territorially, an association of 25 non-tribal administrative units located mostly along the famous "Route from the Varangians to the Greeks". These units or most of them were headed by Scandinavian leaders who formally recognized a superiority of the Kievan prince. This model disagrees sharply with the picture created by the Rus'ian chronicles of the 11th - early 12th centuries which exalt the Rurikid dynasty and do not mention in their narratives any other competing leaders or clans. My study aims at verifying this picture and considering a contribution of the Scandinavians to political de-1 velopments in medieval Rus'.