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Статья

Privatization in St. Petersburg: Challenges in the Post-Soviet Era

The urban age . 1994. Vol. 2. No. 4. P. 1-6.
Limonov L. E., Miagkov V.

St. Petersburg relinquished its capital status to Moscow after the revolution 1917 and became instead a military-industrial center for the country. Its budget came from the state, and its development was financed by Moscow. Many private-sector initiatives gave way to massive state interventions. Housing provides a good example. Mass housing construction, which began in 1960s , was dictated by the state, which had become both the builder and customer. Citizens, having spent years on housing waiting lists, were not consulted about the type of housing to be constructed; neither were they likely to complain given they received their apartments free of charge. The state accepted the product and paid architects and builders in accordance with fixed established prices.
As a result, the historic center of St. Petersburg, with its parks, palaces, and rich facades of old nineteenth century houses is now surrounded by a thick belt of industrial areas. A thin circle of Stalin-period houses and huge "bed-room" districts, made up of multi-story residential areas, stretch as far as twelve kilometers from the center of the city.