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Of all publications in the section: 116
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Working paper
Ощепков А. Ю. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2016
In this study, we analyze some pitfalls of measuring employment tenure in the RLMS – HSE data, focusing on the inconsistency of responses to the “when you started your current job” question in two consecutive rounds of the survey. If job start dates differ between two interviews, this signals either that the job has been changed or that at least one of those two dates is incorrect. We determine conditions when the inconsistency between dates means measurement errors in tenure and analyze the incidence and magnitude of these errors as well as their correlation with individual characteristics and impact on regression analysis. Our fi ndings may be summarized as follows. Firstly, the prevalence of such errors in the RLMS – HSE data is high: in the period 1995–2014 about a quarter of all tenure observations were contaminated. Secondly, the magnitude of these errors is substantial. The mean absolute error (a difference between job start dates in two consecutive surveys) was about 3 years, while about a quarter of all errors exceeded 5 years. The mean relative error exceeded 50% of individual’s tenure length. Thirdly, both the probability and magnitude of measurement errors in tenure are not random and correlated with some individuals’ characteristics including wages. This suggests that the standard mincer-type wage equation underestimates returns to tenure in the RLMS – HSE data. Finally, we provide examples of how measurement errors in tenure may affect results of descriptive and econometric analysis. We show that in 1995-2014 due to these errors the average tenure varied in fairy wide limits, which challenges any conclusions about the rise or fall in the average tenure in Russia built on RLMS – HSE data. We also show that panel data estimates of returns to tenure are very sensitive to measurement errors as these errors affect variation in tenure length within individuals more than that variation between individuals. All in all, our results suggest that researchers using RLMS-HSE data should work with tenure data with great care and try to take into account measurement errors in their analyses.
Added: May 19, 2016
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. № 01.
Added: Oct 20, 2014
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2009. № 01.
The paper provides a thorough critique of conventional wisdom that in the Russian economy of 2000-s labor compensation was increasing at much higher annual rates than productivity. It reveals a number of wrong implicit assumptions that lead to this statistical illusion. The most important of them are: 1) substitution of producer real wage for consumer real wage; 2) using of data on wages instead of data on total labor compensation. Relying upon both official statistics and findings of business surveys the paper concludes that in fact 2004–2007 were a period of sharp decrease rather than of sharp increase in unit labor cost.
Added: Mar 31, 2013
Working paper
Ощепков А. Ю., Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2015
In this study we analyze differences in labour market outcomes across Russian regions in 2000-2014. We consider labour force participation, employment and unemployment rates, vacancy rates, the incidence of informal employment, and average wage levels. We also describe the first reaction of the regional labour markets to the current economic crisis. Our main conclusions are the following. Firstly, the rankings of Russian regions in all considered indicators are very stable in time. However, regional labour markets do converge. Secondly, our results support a popular thesis that all “good things” usually come together. Relatively high wage and employment levels go hand in hand with low levels of unemployment and informal employment as well as with high per capita GRP. We also find that both regions-“leaders” and regions-“outsiders” tend to form clusters of close to each other or adjacent regions. Thirdly, the first reaction to the current crisis was extremely diverse: in some regions there was a marked reduction in the labour force participation, employment, and vacancy rates along with rising unemployment, in others these indicators did not change, and in others they even improved. However, real wages fell in all regions, making the Russian model of the labor market adjustment even more interesting in the regional context.
Added: Nov 20, 2015
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И., Ощепков А. Ю. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
Added: May 19, 2014
Working paper
Воскобойников И. Б., Гимпельсон В. Е. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. № 4.
The paper explores the relationship between structural change and labour productivity growth of the Russian economy. Structural change is considered as the outcome of labour reallocation between industries as well as between formal and informal segments within industries. Using the shift-share analysis, we decompose aggregate labour productivity growth into contributions of intra-industry growth (“within” effects) and the growth due to labour reallocation (“between” effects). For this we use four alternative methods of the shift share analysis, which differ by initial assumptions and economic interpretation, using official Russian statistics of the informal economy and the Russia KLEMS dataset.   This is the first study that applies alternative methods of the shift-share analysis to estimation of labour reallocation contribution to labour productivity growth, taking into account informality. Moreover, the present research explores, for the first time, the impact of expanding informal segment on labour productivity growth of the Russian economy. All methods provide consistent results and demonstrate that the total labour reallocation has been growth enhancing though the informality expansion has had the negative effect. As our study suggests, it is caused by growing variation in productivity levels across industries, which is also known as the Denison effect.
Added: Jul 17, 2015
Working paper
Леман Х., Muravyev A. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2011. No. 08.

Having unique data we investigate informal employment and “envelope payments” as additional costs of worker displacement in the Russian labor market. In particular we analyze whether displaced workers experience
more involuntary informal employment than their non-displaced counterparts. Our main results confirm
our contention that displacement entraps some of the workers in involuntary informal employment. Those who quit, in turn, experience voluntary informality for the most part, but there seems a minority of quitting workers who end up in involuntary informal jobs. This scenario does not fall on all the workers who separate but predominantly on workers with low human capital. Being able to distinguish between involuntary and voluntary informal employment our study contributes to the debate in the informality literature on the issue of segmented versus integrated labor markets. We also pursue the issue of informality persistence and find that informal employment is indeed persistent as some workers churn from one informal job to the next. Job separations in general and not displacement events per se are associated with larger “envelope payments”.

Added: Dec 27, 2012
Working paper
Лукьянова А. Л. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. № WP3/2018/08.
The paper studies the evolution of individual- and household-based non-employment rates in Russia using data from the RLMS HSE for 1994–2016. Following [Gregg and Wadsworth, 2008], I estimate disparities between individual- and household-level measures and compare actual household workless rates with counterfactuals based on a random distribution of work. I fi nd that the Russian labor market is characterized by a low, albeit growing, rate of household joblessness: about 6% of the working age population live in households where no other adults work. Inequality in the distribution of work is also low and declining. Generally, work is distributed equally among households and in some years more (!) equally than if it were distributed randomly. Equality is achieved primarily due to a very high employment rates among two-adult households. Conditioning on characteristics, we distinguish several types of households that face “excessive” non-employment, i.e. for these types of households actual non-employment rate is higher than the counterfactual prediction based on their socio-demographic characteristics. These are households without university graduates, couples without children in which one of the spouses is above offi cial retirement age, working age couples living with adult children, and working age single adults without children. The paper assesses various underlying driving factors for the dynamics of household nonemployment. The decomposition results reveal that there are a number of factors at play. Demographic shifts – reduction of average household size and expanding share of single-adult households – were identifi ed as the main driver of growing household joblessness. Labour market factors – changes in individual employment rates, especially deterioration of permanent jobs – also exerted a sizable effect. These trends were partly offset by improvements in the distribution of work among households
Added: Dec 18, 2018
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. № 06.
Added: Dec 16, 2012
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2008. № 03.
The paper examines a problem of legitimization of the privatization’s outcomes in Russia and provides a critical appraisal of various political proposals for its resolution. The analysis proceeds from a distinction between two different types of ownership illegitimacy — “specified” and “attenuated” ones. The paper argues that the “unspecified” illegitimacy evolved in Russia is not an absolute obstacle for sustainable economic growth but rather an institutional “birth trauma” which is common for all post-socialist countries and which could be cured only by piecemeal approaching of relationship between “strong” and “week” economic actors to principles of fair play.
Added: Mar 31, 2013
Working paper
Демьянова А. В. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. №  WP3/2015/09.
In the paper, we trace the evolution of the institutions of social support for disabled people in Russia from 1990 onwards and develop periodization based on changes in the legislation in the spheres of disability status and pensions assignment. The paper focuses on four dimensions of regulation and social policy: disability status assignment, disability benefi ts, employment protection and non-cash benefi ts. Our analysis reveals that the disability rate depends not only on objective health conditions of the population, but it is also shaped by institutional factors. Over the period, changes in disability legislation were followed by changes in the number of the disabled, their distribution among disability groups, and their employment rate. We show that extensive use of non-cash benefi ts during the economic downturn of the 1990s boosted the growth in the number of disabled people. The use of “remaining earning capacity” as the key criterion for assignment of disability benefi ts led to an increase in disability claims among the elderly and to a decline of employment among the disabled. Weak enforcement of employment quotas and of requirements concerning creation of specialized working places limits the effi ciency of employment policies for disabled people.
Added: Feb 20, 2016
Working paper
Earle J., Spicer A., Sabirianova P. K. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2004. No. 04.
What role do community norms play in the diffusion and persistence of new organizational practices? We explore this question through an examination of the widespread practice of wage arrears, the late and non-payment of wages, in Russia during the 1990s. Existing research on wage arrears most often examines this practice as a means of flexible wage adjustment under difficult economic conditions. We develop an alternative theory that explains wage arrears through their acceptance as a legitimate form of organizational behavior within local communities. Our empirical analysis finds some support for the neoclassical position that wage arrears reflect adjustment to negative shocks, but this perspective fails to account for a number of important facts, including a high level of arrears among apparently successful firms. In contrast, our results find strong support for the institutional perspective. The statistical analysis demonstrates powerful and robust community effects both in firm adoption of this practice, controlling for firm performance, liquidity, and fixed firm effects, and in workers’ reaction to arrears, through their quit (exit) and strike (voice) behavior.
Added: Mar 27, 2013
Working paper
Гимпельсон В. Е., Капелюшников Р. И., Лукьянова А. Л. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2007. № 03.
To be competitive, firms have to maintain level and composition of workforce they consider optimal given utilized technology and expected output. The paper discusses what types of firms are unable to keep optimal employment, and why. Do firms still report excess of labor or do they face labor shortage? What is the skill dimension for reported shortage and excess? Which factors raise probability of non-optimal employment and create adjustment barriers? Where are shortage or excess concentrated and what can explain their persistence? Finally, what are costs and ways to deal with non-optimal employment that firms are facing? The presented analysis is based on micro-data of the large-scale survey (2005) of Russian industrial firms.
Added: Mar 28, 2013
Working paper
Гимпельсон В. Е., Монусова Г. А. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2009. № 03.
Added: Mar 31, 2013
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. № WP3/2017/03.
Added: Oct 12, 2017
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И., Гимпельсон В. Е. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2004. № 03.
Added: Mar 27, 2013
Working paper
Леман Х., Раззолини Т., Зайцева А. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. № 01.

Having unique data we investigate informal employment and “envelope payments” as additional costs of worker displacement in the Russian labor market. In particular we analyze whether displaced workers experience
more involuntary informal employment than their non-displaced counterparts. Our main results confirm
our contention that displacement entraps some of the workers in involuntary informal employment. Those who quit, in turn, experience voluntary informality for the most part, but there seems a minority of quitting workers who end up in involuntary informal jobs. This scenario does not fall on all the workers who separate but predominantly on workers with low human capital. Being able to distinguish between involuntary and voluntary informal employment our study contributes to the debate in the informality literature on the issue of segmented versus integrated labor markets. We also pursue the issue of informality persistence and find that informal employment is indeed persistent as some workers churn from one informal job to the next. Job separations in general and not displacement events per se are associated with larger “envelope payments”.

Added: Dec 26, 2012
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2020. № 4.
Recently, Universal Basic Income (UBI) has become one of the most hotly debated issues in both academic and publicistic literature. The paper describes the conceptual core of this project, critically evaluates the philosophical, moral and economic arguments put forward both “for” and “against” it, and summarizes evidence on implementation of social programs close to it “in spirit”. It is emphasized that UBI should be viewed as a global politico-philosophical and ethico-economic project. This explains why its full-fledged version has never been put into practice anywhere and the consequences of its real introduction are unknown. The analysis is conducted in a comparative institutional perspective, which allows us to highlight the most important differences between this scheme and alternative forms of social support. Three lines of its justification are discussed – normative, positive and “alarmist” (referring to negative processes in the labor market) ones. The author concludes that UBI has no future as a real program of action. This project contradicts the latest trends in the evolution of welfare state; the costs associated with it are fiscally unbearable; most people perceive it as morally unacceptable. Most likely, UBI awaits for the fate of another cabinet utopia.
Added: Jul 27, 2020
Working paper
Капелюшников Р. И. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2018. № 06.
Today most of the countries are experiencing fast population aging that will last the entire XXI century. Its economic effects are multifarious and in a large part will shape further dynamics of the global economy not only in the short- or medium- but also in the long-run. Unfortunately Russian economists and politicians hardly aware how diverse are economic consequences of population aging since their attention is focused on its narrow purely pragmatic dimensions (such as raising of pension age, deficit of the Russian Pension Fund etc.). The paper provides a broad overview of major economic effects of population aging in both theoretical and empirical perspectives. It examines a place of aging in the process of the demographic transition and forecasts its expected trends in subsequent decades for a few countries including Russia. Next it critically reviews different versions of dependency/support ratios – demographic and economic; chronological and prospective; non-adjusted and adjusted for differences by age in labor income and per capita consumption. A special attention is paid to a basic scheme of relationships between key demographic and macroeconomic variables that highlights how population aging might affect employment, labor productivity, capital intensity, wages, returns to capital, investment and savings. Some additional effects are also analyzed such as prospective changes in labor supply, human capital accumulation, technological change, real interest, inflation. A general conclusion is that population aging is not per se a fundamental economic challenge that should endanger society’s welfare. Real dangers arise from existing institutions providing support for elderly which were established in the early to mid 20 century under completely different demographic and economic condition.
Added: Nov 30, 2018
Working paper
Лукьянова А. Л., Белоконная Л. А., Гимпельсон В. Е. и др. Проблемы рынка труда. WP3. Высшая школа экономики, 2007. № WP3/2007/05.
Added: May 14, 2013