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Of all publications in the section: 77
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Working paper
Koncheva E., Zalesskiy N., Zyuzin P. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015
Liberalization of regional public transport market in Russia has led to continuing decline of service quality. One of the main results of the liberalization is the emergence of inefficient spatial structures of regional public transport systems in Russian regions. While the problem of optimization of urban public transport system has been extensively studied, the structure of regional public transport system has been referred less often. The question is whether the problems of spatial structure are common for regional and public transportation systems, and if this is the case, whether the techniques developed for urban public transport planning and management are applicable to regional networks. The analysis of the regional public transport system in Perm Krai has shown that the problems of cities and regions are very similar. On this evidence the proposals were made in order to employ urban practice for the optimization of regional public transport system. The detailed program was developed for Perm Krai which can be later on adapted for other regions. 
Added: Oct 22, 2015
Working paper
Dagaev D., Stoyan E. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2019. No. WP BRP 216/EC/2019.
We analyse betting behaviour patterns of the visitors of the specialized betting website dedicated to the popular eSports game Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. The reverse favourite-longshot bias is found both in the in-sample and out-of-sample datasets. This phenomenon is rather unusual for parimutuel betting markets because favourite-longshot bias is more common. We define simple betting strategies based on the bets on underdogs and show that these strategies make a sufficiently large positive profit, which is a sign of market inefficiency. Next, we investigate determinants of the reverse favourite-longshot bias. We hypothesize that popular teams attract more unsophisticated gamblers which adds to the stronger reverse favourite-longshot bias in matches with such teams. Geographical proximity is found to be a significant factor that increases the bias, whereas the effect of internet popularity measured by the number of team players' followers on Twitter surprisingly follows the U-shape curve.
Added: Jun 26, 2019
Working paper
Varfolomeev A. A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 14/IR/2015.
The study focuses on specific issues in the system of international security related to piracy in its new nowadays dimension. The first part examines the adequacy of the classical approach to treat piracy as a common crime with the international element. The essay compares contemporary piracy to other illicit activities committed by non-state actors. The second part deals with the status of threat to international peace and security potencially applicable to piracy. The essay concludes with a brief case study on the role of the UN Security Council in suppressing piracy off the coast of Somalia under norms of international security law. 
Added: Apr 8, 2015
Working paper
Di Puppo L. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2019
The paper contributes new perspectives to the study of post-communist reforms by highlighting the limits of the transition paradigm in the analysis ofreform processes in the post-Soviet space. It examines Georgia’s police reform and argues that the more repressive aspects of the reform should not be viewed as “setbacks” on a transition path, but as integral to the goal of constructinganew Georgian statethroughthe creation of symbolic divides between two different “Georgias”. This symbolic work of emphasising contrasts between different domains by casting light on and obscuring social phenomena is analysed through the lens of the “spectacle of policing” (Comaroffs 2004; Wacquant 2009).
Added: Feb 13, 2019
Working paper
Богомолова Н. К. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015
By comparing Agul and Tabasaran data, I study the emergence of personal markers in two closely related languages. Grammaticalization is first viewed through the prism of frequency of use in a specific syntactic position. However, this and other approaches do not give interpretable results for Agul. The only position where the pronoun is consistently doubled is with verbs of speech. I propose an explanation why it is in this position that the pronoun is doubled and how this may lead to further grammaticalization of the pronouns into pronominal markers. 
Added: Dec 8, 2015
Working paper
Shirokanova A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 60.
This paper deals with the recently revealed paradox that contemporary Muslims demonstrate a stronger Protestant work ethic (PWE) than contemporary Protestants do. I test whether this paradox is supported in a multilevel analysis on internationally comparative WVS data. According to Inglehart’s theory of post-materialist shift, work ethic should be stronger in the developing societies that do not have enough existential security. Following the debate on the Protestant work ethic I test another hypothesis saying that the effects of PWE extend beyond the religious population of Protestant countries. On waves four and five of the World Values Survey, I compare the strength of work ethic between the Muslims and Protestants in multilevel ordinal outcome models. The models built on 26,156 respondents in 56 countries show no significance in work ethic between Muslims and Protestants, all else being equal. Living in a historically Protestant society does not increase work ethic by itself, but being religious in a Protestant society does. In all developed countries, work ethic is likely to decrease. Overall, the evidence of a stronger work ethic among the Muslims is changeable; in some models, Muslims are likely to have a stronger work ethic than Protestants, but in other models Muslims are not significantly different from Protestants. This poses further research questions about the universal features of different religious ethics and on the non-religious factors explaining the progress linked with the Protestant work ethic.
Added: Oct 17, 2015
Working paper
Kondratev A., Nesterov A. S. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2018
We study practically relevant aspects of popularity in two-sided matching where only one side has preferences. A matching is called popular if there does not exist another matching that is preferred by a simple majority. We show that for a matching to be popular it is necessary and suffcient that no coalition of size up to 3 decides to exchange their houses by simple majority. We then constructively show that a market where such coalitions meet at random converges to a popular matching whenever it exists.
Added: Sep 18, 2018
Working paper
Boltunova E. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 126.
This article explores how Bolshevik/Soviet authorities took on and adapted the Russian imperial topography of power i.e. the system of special structures that intended to convey state ideology (monuments to tsars and statesmen, emperors’ residences with their various ceremonial spaces, administrative buildings, and those museums which play a role in power representation). The research traces the changing attitudes to the Russian Empire’s space of power in 1917 – late 1920s that varied from destructing such spatial objects to adapting them to the objectives of propaganda. It argues that with the time being appropriation strategies (renaming, recoding, creating of revolutionary memorials etc.) appeared to have better prospects than straightforward disavowal or destruction. The imperial space of power provided some opportunities to propagate novel and/or universal connotations of power and gradually was found relevant for the needs of the Soviet regime.
Added: Apr 13, 2016
Working paper
Proskuryakova L. N. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 44.
The Foresight study presented in this paper is devoted to the sustainable use of water resources in Russia. The authors analyse possible trajectories of development in the three thematic areas (i) sustainability of water systems; (ii) water use by households and in industry; and (iii) new water products and services. The Foresight methods cover expert interviews and seminars, desk research, and policy analysis. The state and corporate policy recommendations for the water sector offered in this study correspond with the water scenarios earlier identified by Saritas et al.: “Nearly ideal future”, “Losses and accidents”, “Problem conservation”, and “National Priority” [Saritas et al., 2015]. For each of these four scenarios, policy recommendations for water companies were identified covering new solutions (including technological innovations), new values and competencies, organisational changes, modernisation of the infrastructure, financial issues, and legal and regulatory changes. Moreover, we recommend certain policy measures and approaches to state policy in the water sector.  The paper concludes with the main directions and instruments for the sector’s development, which should be planned and implemented jointly by the government and businesses, as well as other stakeholders (organisations and people).
Added: Aug 31, 2015
Working paper
Vasilenko A. S. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 182.
We develop the approach based on the synthesis of New Keynesian macroeconomics and agentbased models, and build a model, allowing for the incorporation of behavioral and speculative factors in financial markets in a New Keynesian model with a financial accelerator, `a la Bernanke et al. (1999). Using our model, we study the optimal strategy of central banks in pricking asset price bubbles for the maximization of social welfare and preserving financial stability. Our results show that pricking asset price bubbles can be a policy that enhances social welfare, and reduces the volatility of output and inflation; especially, in the cases when asset price bubbles are caused by credit expansion, or when the central bank conducts effective information policy, for example, effective verbal interventions. We also argue that pricking asset price bubbles with the lack of the effectiveness of information policy, only by raising the interest rate, leads to negative consequences to social welfare and financial stability.
Added: Nov 22, 2017
Working paper
Gudova E. A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. WP BRP 06/URB/2016 .
Children and adults have different abilities and power in the city space. Playgrounds, as one of the places for children, illustrate the localization of childhood. Play area design is established by adults, and the quality of play materials may influence the variety of games and types of play but outdoor playgrounds are also influenced by a factor which was previously ignored – the weather. In this paper it is questioned how weather conditions may influence children’s play behaviour and spatial practices in a winter playground. Through observations of two Moscow playgrounds in December – January 2014-2015 and June 2015, we show that winter playgrounds even enrich the playing possibilities with the accessibility of snow as “loose part” materials. Winter weather not only allows children’s creativity in games but also redefine the symbolical borders of a playground and its equipment, turning the playground into a unified space. As children can play on the playground, with the playground, and beneath its blurry borders as well, the spatial and power inequality between children and adults slightly reduces, and city space becomes more democratized
Added: Dec 7, 2016
Working paper
Koncheva E., Zalesskiy N. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016
Russian cities are traditionally characterized by high levels of public transport ridership, compared to the Western cities. Moreover, the cities were intensively developing during the Soviet era when the private transport was literally absent. Thus, it can be assumed that the spatial structure of Russian cities (as well as the spatial structure of the majority of the former USSR cities) is a perfect illustration of the Transit Oriented Development (TOD). In this paper the spatial development patterns of 13 Russian cities are analyzed to assess the current situation and the prospects for transit oriented development in the Russian Federation. А brief history of urban spatial development during the Soviet period is provided. Fundamental differences between TOD and Soviet Style Development (SSD) are discussed, such as the absence of competition between the private and public transport and the absence of private ownership of land.
Added: Aug 2, 2016
Working paper
Kochetkova E. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015
This paper examines Soviet engineer Leonid Zherebov, an inventor of continuous pulp cooker. After twenty-five years of experiments, Zherebov’s design failed, and Soviet factories began to produce pulp using imported Swedish digesters. This article examines the biography of Leonid Zherebov and continuous pulp cooking in order to better understand the nature of Russian technological innovation and its failures. It emphasizes the communication between different institutions involved as well as a range of technological, social, economic and political factors. The paper contends that technological failures were emerged from the failure of Soviet forestry as a technological system due to a lack of open discussion between its builders and the scarcity of resources required for innovation.
Added: Oct 15, 2015
Working paper
Alexander Yu. Apokin, Irina B. Ipatova. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 142.
This paper investigates the factors behind the recent growth slowdown (so-called Secular Stagnation) in the US, the euro area and Japan using the metrics of potential output growth. Specifically, our results offer limited support for an impaired credit transmission channel hypothesis (Reinhart and Rogoff, 2009a), while not supporting a supply slowdown hypothesis (Gordon, 2012). We propose a unified framework to test those hypotheses based on structural break tests of potential output. We estimate a variety of potential output growth models accounting for inflation, unemployment, and private credit dynamics (finance-neutral estimates) with multivariate Kalman filters and subject our estimates to structural break tests. We detect structural breaks between 2008 and 2010 for all three countries with Bai-Perron search procedure, the result being robust to the model specification and sample choice, with no significant difference between ordinary and finance-neutral estimates. We proceed with the Chen-Liu test to detect negative temporary change outliers in the Great Recession for the US and the euro area and negative level shift outliers for Japan. Moreover, original breaks in the Chen-Liu test disappear in the US and the euro area once we account for private credit and labour market dynamics, but do not change for Japan.
Added: Sep 9, 2016
Working paper
Gonchar K. R., Bessonova E. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 161.
We investigate the impact of court conditions on multinational decision on entry, subsidiary size and entry mode across subnational regions in Russia. we apply the literature on heterogeneous frims and the institution-based view of investor behavior, which predict that higher institutional costs raise the size and productivity cut-off of start-up subsidiaries. Our empirical results based on microestablishment data of foreign-owned firms in Russia show that a weaker judicial framework and stronger political power of the local governor significantly de-stimulate entry. The majority of multinationals enter Russia, which is veiwed as a high-risk country, through large and very large subsidiaries wholly owned by the foreign parents. Variation of the business strategies of multinationals between regions is largely explained by regional court conditions, as foreign investors adapt their strategic decisions to compensate court deficiencies by increasing the size of the subsidiary and acquiring local institutional knowledge through partnership with resident firms. We also find that structural adjustments to court risks are typical for horizontal investments, which only serve the host market.
Added: Apr 12, 2017
Working paper
Kanaeva N. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 1.
This publication presents an overview of the situation in studies of Buddhist epistemology and logic in Western Europe and in Russia. Those studies are the young direction of Buddhology, and they started only at the beginning of the XX century. There are considered the main schools, their representatives, the directions of their researches and achievements in the review. The activity of Russian scientists in this field was not looked through ever before.   
Added: Jul 13, 2015
Working paper
Krivokhizh S., Akopov S. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2019. No. 65/PS/2019 .
Based on the idea of the analysis of symbolic representations of sovereignty and framework of poststructuralist international relations theory this research is exploring the performative nature of sovereignty in a comparative empirical perspective. We have taken four well-known speeches on sovereignty issues to see which symbolic representations of sovereignty were involved in the specific discourse of the four presidents: France, the United States of America, Russia and China. In the analyzed symbolic representations of sovereignty, we encounter important differences synthesize ten symbolic representations of sovereignty that are common to all four examined discourses.
Added: Apr 17, 2019
Working paper
Volkova A. A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 54.
It is generally assumed that the syntactic structure of participial relative clauses is impoverished, “reduced” in comparison to that of regular RCs (see a. o. Burzio 1981; Chomsky 1981; Hazout 2001; Siloni 1995; Stowell 1981). Participial RCs are often analysed as VP-like structures (for some, embedded under a nominalizing node, Doron & Reintges 2005; Hazout 2001; Siloni 1995, a. o., but see Kayne 1994 who argues that participial clauses have a C, but crucially not a T). The participial RCs typically (i) don’t license usual CP-material (wh-phrases, complementizers); (ii) don’t have an independent temporal reference; (iii) don’t have subjects. Based on the data of Meadow Mari (Uralic) I contend the two latter statements and show that Meadow Mari pRCs can have independent temporal reference and subjects. I further contrast the behaviour of reflexives in embedded infinitival and participial clauses and argue that even if there is a C level in pRC, it is quite different from that of infinitivals. 
Added: Apr 15, 2017
Working paper
Larina G., Markina V. M. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2017. No. 43.
This article provides an empirically grounded analysis for two fundamentally different models of math teachers’ beliefs about student diversity in Russian secondary schools: exclusive and inclusive models. Although teachers’ beliefs are considered a central factor for the differentiated approach, teachers’ attitudes could be stereotyped and, consequently, the evaluation of a student’s ability would be systematically shifted and decisions about the possibility of teaching a student would be incorrect. In-depth interview research allowed us to investigate what criteria teachers employ while classifying students in the classroom and what expectations they have for each group of students. It was revealed that within the exclusive model, teachers have an image of a “normal” student and use discrete categories for labelling students with reference to the “normality”. Within the inclusive model teachers tend not to juxtapose students with discrete categories; rather they prefer to compare a student only with herself or himself. Research findings are discussed in the context of a possible “fixed effect” on a student’s development. However, there is a need for further investigation of a connection between teachers’ belief systems, teaching practices, and students’ achievements.
Added: Oct 20, 2016
Working paper
Stepanova A. N., Malika Shaikhutdinova, Vladislav Savelyev. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2018. No. WP BRP 63/FE/2018.
This article examines the presence of the reference price effect in mergers and acquisitions in Russia, which can act as a distortion in investor perception of the influence a deal has on a company. In this study we use the Russian market as a laboratory for the investigation of behavioral effects in a relatively inefficient market. We find a relationship between the acquirer’s announcement period return and the proximity of its pre-announcement share price to the 52-week high. The 52-week high serves as a salient anchor even though it is economically irrelevant for valuation purposes. This effect appears to be stronger for deals associated with higher levels of uncertainty. The findings confirm the presence of the anchoring bias in evaluating the effect of a merger or acquisition announcement by Russian investors. We demonstrate a significant anchoring effect even for deals with a blocking (>10%) or a controlling stake (>25%) in an emerging market with a highly concentrated ownership.
Added: Oct 17, 2018
Working paper
Lavrinovich M. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 133/HUM/2016.
The paper examines social differences within the concept of ‘friendship’ in late 18th – early 19th century Russia in order to ‘reassemble’ friendship as a social phenomenon in this period. Ubiquitously, the voluminous correspondence of the Russian aristocracy is interpreted as “friendly” disregarding any social dimension and ignoring the social station of the correspondents. The 18th century was a critical period in Russia being an age of radical modernization. New social and cultural models were appropriated and, as a result of westernization, the Latin tradition was assimilated too. In early modern Europe, the concept of ‘friendship’ was applied to allegedly equal relationships, as the words cliens, patronus, clientela were not in use any more, but clients were described as amici, or friends by their patrons. The paper analyzes the correspondence of several Russian aristocrats with their clients – social inferiors. The grandees refer to these relations as ‘friendly’ and call them friendship or amitié (bien sincere or parfait) emphasizing their value for them. From the letters of their correspondents, it comes to light that the social inferiors tended to be wary and not to use these notions assessing their relationships, thus remaining in the conceptual framework of the patron-client relationships. Under the impact of the ‘emotional turn’ of early sentimentalism, the concept of friendship, like that of social cohesion, was used by the grandees as a means to reinterpret the relationships of dominance in the patron-client relations as voluntary and predicated on selfless devotion whereas their clients preferred to avoid sensitivity still resorting to more traditional and apprehensible flattery and obsequiousness.
Added: Oct 21, 2016