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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 55
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Working paper
Turovsky R. F. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2015
This study is based on descriptive analysis of systemic opposition in Russia and its regions. We focus on the procedure and results of gubernatorial elections held in 2012-2015 in 62 regions (twice in two of them). The author has analyzed statistical information on electoral participation and performance of the opposition at gubernatorial elections, along with numerous interviews with political actors and experts. This study presents a logical model of ruling elites’ and systemic opposition’s strategic behavior and interaction proved by cases studied by the author in Russia’s regions. The author gives the definition of systemic opposition and analyzes its relations with the federal and regional authorities. Of particular importance is the role of systemic opposition in the legitimating of gubernatorial elections. However, the study shows that the legitimating process fails due to low turnout and usually leads to electoral losses of systemic opposition. Gubernatorial elections give systemic opposition very limited opportunities (despite the fact of its first victory in 2015) but still integrate it into the system while leaving the systemic parties with more chances to get political positions in legislative bodies. 
Added: Dec 7, 2015
Working paper
Akhremenko A. S., Petrov A., Yureskul E. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 54/PS/2017.
There have been numerous studies concerning productivity, representing two general approaches toward measuring the concept. Parametric approaches specify the actual form of the production function based on theoretical assumptions, while non-parametric approaches use empirical best-practice cases as a benchmark for productivity measures. We propose a new approach to obtain cross-country total factor productivity estimates and a method to derive the production function, which builds on empirical data and does not require a priori assumptions about its functional specification. The approach is based on radial model of data envelopment analysis. The obtained TFP estimates are validated through comparing to PWT and UNIDO datasets. Some preliminary analysis is also provided concerning application of the TFP estimates to cross-country divergence/convergence in productivity. We also demonstrate the potential utility of the estimates for political science research.
Added: Dec 1, 2017
Working paper
Gaivoronsky Y., Karandashova S., Sirotkina E. et al. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 17/PS/2014.
Does the level of party system institutionalization influence high-level incumbents’ electoral support within subnational authoritarianism? Is it possible to ensure the incumbents’ electoral success only with electoral manipulative practices and to what extent this and other factors contribute to the incumbents’ walkover? In this paper, we argue that manipulative practices are not the only and sufficient determinant of incumbents’ electoral success in an authoritarian regime as it is widely assumed by the scholars of electoral authoritarianism. The research is based on the results of Russian gubernatorial elections in 2012-2013
Added: Oct 23, 2014
Working paper
Frye T. M., Reuter O. J., Noah Buckley. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 01.
Political and economic outcomes depend, in part, on the quality of the officials making policy. Many scholars argue that the free and fair elections are the best method for selecting competent officials. Others, however, argue that elections can lead to the selection of amateurs, demagogues, and political sycophants. Under this view, sub-national officials should be appointed by centralized planners who are insulated from local popular pressures. In this paper, we use original data on the biographies of Russian regional governors to determine whether the backgrounds of governors elected between 1992 and 2004 differ from the backgrounds of appointed governors post-2004. We find that the two groups are surprisingly similar on many dimensions. Elected and appointed governors have similar career backgrounds, ages, educational profiles, and ethnicities. But there are some important differences as well. Elected governors, are more likely to have held elected office and be from the region where they serve. Appointed governors are also more likely to be federal bureaucrats, hold a graduate degree, and have education in economics. Finding that the selection mechanism explains only a small portion of the variance in governor backgrounds, we conclude the paper by speculating on other possible explanations for variation in governor background.
Added: Aug 27, 2012
Working paper
Frye T. M., Noah Buckley, Reuter O. J. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 09.
Political and economic outcomes depend, in part, on the quality of the officials making policy. Many scholars argue that the free and fair elections are the best method for selecting competent officials. Others, however, argue that elections can lead to the selection of amateurs, demagogues, and political sycophants. Under this view, sub-national officials should be appointed by centralized planners who are insulated from local popular pressures. In this paper, we use original data on the biographies of Russian regional governors to determine whether the backgrounds of governors elected between 1992 and 2004 differ from the backgrounds of appointed governors post-2004. We find that the two groups are surprisingly similar on many dimensions. Elected and appointed governors have similar career backgrounds, ages, educational profiles, and ethnicities. But there are some important differences as well. Elected governors, are more likely to have held elected office and be from the region where they serve. Appointed governors are also more likely to be federal bureaucrats, hold a graduate degree, and have education in economics. Finding that the selection mechanism explains only a small portion of the variance in governor backgrounds, we conclude the paper by speculating on other possible explanations for variation in governor background.
Added: Jan 29, 2014
Working paper
Remington T. F., Marques II I. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 19/PS/2014.
How  and  when  do  employers  and  governments  cooperate  to  overcome  skill shortages?    Existing  literature  in  the  VOC  tradition  distinguishes  between  coordinated market  and  liberal  market  economy  approaches.    So  far,  however,  little  research  has addressed  this problem  in  the  context  of  emerging  market  economies.    This  paper  uses the  case  of  Russia  to  address  the  ways  in  which  post-communist  states  overcome  the commitment  problems  bedeviling  skill  formation  in  a  market  economy.    Following  a discussion  of  the  history  of  skill  formation  in  Russia  from  the  Soviet  era  through  the present,   we   present   four   case   studies   of   Russian   regions   illustrating   alternative institutional  solutions  to  the  problem  of  matching  vocational  education  and  training  to industry's need for skill. 
Added: Dec 30, 2014
Working paper
Turchenko M. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 37.
On September 8, 2013 the mayoral election was held in Petrozavodsk, the capital city of the Republic of Karelia. An independent candidate Galina Shirshina gained success in this contest. On December 25, 2015 Shirshina was dismissed by the Petrozavodsk City Councillors. Her misgovernment of the city’s public sector was the official explanation for her dismissal. An alternative explanation of why she lost her position, was her refusal to conform with the regional power vertical. In accordance with the obtained results, the leading role in Shirshina’s recall was played by the Karelian authorities. They decided to remove Shirshina after their failure to control her actions as mayor. The key step towards the implementation of this decision was elimination of the autonomy of the local political elites, who supported the mayor of Petrozavodsk and controlled the majority of the municipal deputies. The regional authorities replaced popular mayoral elections in the city with the appointment of a city manager to assure their political control in the future. This case study shows that the survival of mayoral governance and the direct mayoral elections in the cities of Russia depend on mayoral loyalty to the regional authorities.
Added: Sep 5, 2016
Working paper
Lokshin I., Самородова А. В., Скопцова Е. В. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2016
The paper develops the ideas centered around the proposition that high total factor productivity (TFP) is conducive to social cooperation by drawing the interests of economic and, in more general terms, social agents together. In the first part of the paper, a simple theoretical framework is presented that leads to a typology of social orders which is based upon the stimuli of social agents for cooperation and predation. In the second part, a tentative empirical analysis is conducted (panel-data regression with fixed effects) which provides a crude testimony for the plausibility of the theoretical claim that high TFP is associated with cooperation-fostering institutions. The third part of the paper elaborates on the results of empirical analysis and presents some further hypotheses which are concerned with two quite different subject-matters: on the one hand, with the role of TFP as a possible factor of social cooperation; on the other hand, with the typology of social orders proposed by North, Wallis and Weingast in their “Violence and Social Orders”. The latter theme is integrated in the discussion about TFP, cooperation and predation.
Added: Dec 2, 2016
Working paper
Lokshin I. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2015
The paper proposes an outline for the link between two theoretical perspectives on the prerequisites of high institutional quality and long run growth. One framework is based on the tradeoff between disorder and dictatorship and introduces the notion of the institutional possibility frontier, another perspective focuses upon the role of total factor productivity as a parameter underlying long run growth. The connection between these frameworks is proposed and elaborated. The paper sheds some light on the nature of total factor productivity and designates the directions for further research on fundamental conditions of high-quality development. 
Added: Dec 5, 2015
Working paper
Marques II I. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2017. No. WP BRP 52/PS/2017.
How do firms decide between different strategies for acquiring highly skilled workers? Ronald Coase (1937) famously argued that firms face trade-offs between “making” required inputs within the firm and contracting with outside actors to “buy” them. Similar trade-offs abound in deciding between in-plant training and outsourcing to either public or private, third parties. Existing theory on firms’ training strategies is premised on the ability of firms to solve a fundamental commitment problem, which retards cooperation between firms and other actors. Only with a strong civil society – employers’ associations and labor unions –or free, transparent and efficient market mechanisms is cooperation possible. Contemporary Russia presents a puzzle to this work. On the one hand, firms increasingly make costly co-investments with state-run schools and outsource training to private third-parties. On the other hand, civil society and judicial institutions are weak in Russia, making it difficult for firms to punish counterparties, at the same time that its markets have failed to fully make the transition to free and transparent capitalism. This paper argues that absent strong civil society and free, transparent markets, firms can overcome commitment problems and work with third-parties so long as their regional governments have strong state capacity and are politically accountable. The former assures firms that central, regional authorities can monitor school officials and private-third parties to ensure agreements are honored, while the latter creates incentives for regional authorities to do so. These theories are tested on original survey data covering 690 firms in 12 Russian regions.
Added: Dec 1, 2017
Working paper
Melville A. Y., Mironyuk M. G., Stukal D. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 02.
It is commonplace that a sovereign state is a prerequisite to democracy. But not all states are alike, each having different resources, capacities, priorities, properties, and so forth. What kinds of states and what particular features are conducive to democracy or autocracy? How do different types of stateness and their dynamics relate to different trajectories of regime transformation in post-communist countries? In light of the significant debate in comparative politics regarding the importance of structural and procedural (actor-oriented) factors in democratization and democratic consolidation, we address the effect of stateness on regime transformations in a broad framework, allowing us to specify the role of structural conditions and the decisions of key political actors in post-communist regime change. The focus of this research is empirical, implementing a combination of qualitative comparative and multivariate statistical methods in order to study a sample of post-communist countries from the two past decades. This Working Paper is an output of a research project implemented as part of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics.
Added: Aug 27, 2012
Working paper
Lazarev Y. A., Sobolev A. S., Soboleva I. V. et al. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2012. No. 04/PS/2012.
This study aims to explore the psychological foundations of political support under a nondemocratic regime by investigating the impact of a natural disaster on attitudes toward the government. The research exploits the enormous wildfires that occurred in rural Russia during the summer of 2010 as a natural experiment. Since wildfire spreads due to the direction of the wind, the local distribution of fire is as if random: one village may burn while the neighboring village is left unscathed. We test the effects of this exogenous variation with a survey of almost 800 respondents in randomly selected villages, 34 of which were burned and 36 of which were unburned, in the four regions of Russia that were most severely affected. Contrary to the conventional scholarly wisdom that suggests that natural disasters cause people to blame politicians, our study finds that in the burned villages there is higher support for the government at all levels, namely for the United Russia Party, the village head, the governor, Prime Minister Putin, and President Medvedev. Most counterintuitively, the rise of support for authorities cannot be fully explained by the generous governmental aid provided to the villages that were damaged by the fires. We interpret the results within the framework of system justification theory, developing it by adding to individual characteristics the factors of the political regime and the demonstration effect.
Added: Aug 27, 2012
Working paper
Lokshin I. Political Science. PS. Высшая школа экономики, 2015
The paper (for the first time, to the best knowledge of the author) applies the Duhem-Quine thesis to conventional quantitative methods in political science. As a result, the discussion of methodological problems associated with these methods is implanted into the epistemological issues highlighted by the Duhem-Quine thesis. Such a link between popular political science methods and philosophy of science could help clarify the difficulties of the former and give impetus to the improved research practices
Added: Jul 18, 2015