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Working paper

Bachet's game is a variant of the game of Nim. There are n objects in one pile. Two players make moves one after another. On every move, a player is allowed to take any positive number of objects not exceeding some fixed number m. The player who takes the last object loses. We consider a variant of Bachet's game in which each move is a lottery over set {1,2,…,m}. Outcome of a lottery is the number of objects that player takes from the pile. We show that under some nondegenericity assumptions on the set of available lotteries the probability that the first player wins in subgame perfect Nash equilibrium converges to 1/2 as n tends to infinity.

Added: Mar 22, 2019

Working paper

This article explores color as marketing tool. The goal of the research is to analyze the perception of promotion materials with different color background. Empirical study helps to identify several groups of differently colored promotion messages perception in relation to different product categories. It may be concluded that general concepts of color preferences changed as applied to particular product category field - every one of which has a color language of its own - in terms of marketing and other conventions.

Added: Apr 26, 2013

Working paper

This paper investigates the relationship between operating cost efficiency and the loan quality of Russian banks. It tries to answer the question whether it is always beneficial for banks to be highly cost efficient (the “bad management” hypothesis) or whether this higher cost efficiency could mean inadequate spending on borrower screening, which could subject banks to higher credit risk exposures in the future (the “skimping” hypothesis)? Our main result implies that, while the “bad management” hypothesis holds on average for the banking sector as a whole, the “skimping” hypothesis could be the case for those Russian banks that are not just highly cost efficient, as predicted by Berger and DeYoung (1997) for US banks, but that at the same time pursue aggressive strategies in the market for loans to households and non-financial firms, especially during the pre-crisis periods when banks are too optimistic to pay increased attention to the quality of borrowers in order to extract higher profits in the short run. Interestingly, we show that the “skimping” strategy is not the case for those Russian banks that demonstrate a lower equity-to-assets ratio and that are highly cost efficient at the same time because, as we believe, higher financial leverage forces these banks to filter out low quality borrowers to be able to repay borrowed funds. From perspective of regulatory policy, these conclusions provide clear arguments in favor of differential prudential regulation in Russia, which could, if being implemented, positively affect the loan quality of both banks that are skimpers (through restricting loans growth by higher capital adequacy requirements and/or increased payments to the Russian Deposit Insurance Agency) and banks that are not (through eliminating incentives to grow too fast), thus improving the stability of the banking sector as a whole.

Added: Oct 25, 2013

Working paper

The paper analyses the first French critiques of the two Mikhail Bakhtin’s monographs and the careful exploration of these reviews enables to explain why they presented him as a formalist. It also traces the reasons of irrelevance of the thinker’s ideas in the early French reception.

Added: Oct 18, 2016

Working paper

The Kazakhstan banking system is increasingly viewed as more advanced than the Russian system. Kazakhstan adopted the International Accounting System (IAS) in 2003 and the Basel II norms in 2005, while Russia has yet to fully adopt either IAS or Basel II. In this paper, bank data for 2002-2006 are used to estimate models of bank cost efficiency. In contrast to most previous papers, no significance difference is found for the average cost efficiency scores of banks for the two countries during 2002-2006. How banks are ranked for efficiency depends upon the chosen model (input and output sets). An interesting insight is the finding that most banks in both countries are below optimal size.

Added: Jun 15, 2013

Working paper

This paper considers the comparative efficiency of public, private, and foreign banks in Russia, a transition economy with several unusual features. We perform stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) of Russian bank-level quarterly data over the period 2005–2013. The method of computation of comparative cost efficiency is amended to control for the effect of revaluation of foreign currency items in bank balance sheets. Public banks are split into core and other state-controlled banks. Employing the generalized method of moments, we estimate a set of distance functions that measure the observed differences in SFA scores of banks and bank clusters (heterogeneity in risk preference and asset structure) to explain changes in bank efficiency rankings. Our results for comparative Russian bank efficiency show higher efficiency scores, less volatility, and narrower spreads between the scores of different bank types than in previous studies. Foreign banks appear to be the least cost-efficient market participants, while core state banks on average are nearly as efficient as private domestic banks. We suggest that foreign banks gain cost-efficiency when they increase their loans-to-assets ratios above the sample median level. Core state banks, conversely, lead in terms of cost efficiency when their loans-to-assets ratio falls below the sample median level. The presented approach is potentially applicable to analysis of bank efficiency in other dollarized emerging markets.

Added: Aug 11, 2015

Working paper

This paper adds to the literature on banking in transition with regard to the comparative efficiency of different bank groups. We conclude that, to prevent the distoring effect of currency and securities revaluations, a refined definition of bank revenue is proper in comparative bank efficiency computations for countries with substantial volatility in financial markets.

Added: Mar 7, 2015

Working paper

This paper adds to the literature on banking in transition with regard to the comparative efficiency of public, private and foreign banks. We perform stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) of Russian bank-level quarterly data from 2005 to 2013. The method of computation of comparative cost efficiency is amended to control for the effect of the revaluations of foreign currency items in bank balance sheets. All public banks are split into the core and other state-controlled banks. We employ the generalized method of moments to estimate a set of distance functions measuring the observed differences in the SFA scores of banks and bank clusters, depending on the heterogeneity in risk preference and asset structure. These distance functions explain the changes in bank efficiency rankings. Our results on comparative bank efficiency are qualitatively different from those in mainstream papers. The efficiency scores of Russian banks are higher and less volatile, and spreads between the scores of different bank types are narrower than hitherto believed. Foreign banks appear as the least cost-efficient type of market participants, while the core state banks are, on average, nearly as efficient as domestic private banks. We suggest that foreign banks are capable of being more cost efficient than others if they increase loans-to-assets ratios above the sample median level. Core state banks, conversely, lead in terms of cost efficiency if their loans-to-assets ratio falls below the sample median level. Our approach is potentially applicable to the analysis of bank efficiency in other dollarized emerging markets.

Added: Jun 15, 2015

Working paper

The paper examines how type of ownership affects the profit efficiency of Russian banks. Using bank-quarter data for selected banks in the period 2004–2015, we combine stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) methodology with an intermediary approach to assess profit efficiency. Our key findings show that foreign-owned banks are the most efficient, followed by state-owned banks and private domestic banks. We also find that the profit efficiency of foreign-owned banks was higher than that of other banks during the economically stable periods of 2004Q1 to 2008Q2 and 2014Q1 to 2015Q3, and that state-owned banks were more efficient than others in the period of financial turmoil from 2008Q3 to 2013Q4 thanks to state support. These results are robust when we consider these banks in terms of branch network diversity, risk preferences, and specialization.

Added: Feb 22, 2018

Working paper

Added: Mar 11, 2013

Working paper

There is a special type of corpora, a poetic corpus, which have a special metric markup. They allow us to do the study of poetry by the methods that are familiar to corpus linguistics in general. We have created the Bashkir poetic corpus. It allows us to answer some questions about the structure of the Bashkir poetry.
Texts in the corpus are annotated with morphological tags, each single token having a set of tags, and with special metric tags, enabling search in lines of specific meter, in rhyming position, etc.

Added: Apr 15, 2015

Working paper

We get sufficient conditions for the full basic automorphism group of a complete
Cartan foliation to admit a unique (finite-dimensional) Lie group structure in the category
of Cartan foliations. In particular, we obtain sufficient conditions for this group
to be discrete. Emphasize that the transverse Cartan geometry may be noneffective.
Some estimates of the dimension of this group depending on the transverse geometry
are found. Further, we investigate Cartan foliations covered by fibrations and ascertain
their specification. Examples of computing the full basic automorphism group of
complete Cartan foliations are constructed.

Added: Nov 10, 2014

Working paper

The basic automorphism group of a Cartan foliation (M, F) is the quotient group of the automorphism group of (M, F) by the normal subgroup, which preserves every leaf invariant. For Cartan foliations covered by fibrations, we find sufficient conditions for the existence of a structure of a finite-dimensional Lie group in their basic automorphism groups. Estimates of the dimension of these groups are obtained. For some class of Cartan foliations with integrable an Ehresmann connection, a method for finding of basic automorphism groups is specified.

Added: Dec 9, 2020

Working paper

The basic values of the Russian population and the population of 31 European countries were compared with data obtained by the Schwartz Questionnaire, embedded into the fourth round of the European Social Survey. Conclusions about similarities and differences of basic human values between Russia and other European countries confirm the thesis that Russia is a country which shares a general logic of cultural and social development with the rest of the world and which has a lot in common with countries of a similar economic level and recent political history. In most value comparisons, Russia appeared to be closer to Post-Communist and Mediterranean countries than to Western European or Nordic countries. The fact that Russians are less committed than most Europeans to the values of caring, tolerance, equality, and ecology, and, conversely, more committed than most Europeans to the competitive “zero-sum” values of personal success, wealth, and power, confirms the validity of current moral criticisms of mass values and morals in Russia. The other disturbing fact is the relatively low commitment of Russians to the values of Openness to Change and, conversely, a strong focus on Conservation. So basic values of Russians create a cultural barrier to the development of an innovation-based economy and to the societal development as a whole. Thanks to a shift from country-level analysis to individual- and group-level analysis, we challenge the notion of the “average Russian” and demonstrate that the Russian value majority consists of two subtypes. Russia also has a sizable value minority and its members share values non-typical for most Russians. Two value minorities, which embrace 19% of the Russian population, are more committed to values of Openness and Self-Transcendence than the rest of the Russian population. These value groups are typical for European countries with more prosperous and happy populations and we can hypothesize that in Russia they are also resource groups for the country’s advancement.

Added: Oct 4, 2013

Working paper

The purpose of this article is to develop techniques for estimating basis log canonical thresholds on logarithmic surfaces. To that end, we develop new local intersection estimates that imply log canonicity. Our main motivation and application is to show the existence of Kahler-Einstein edge metrics on all but finitely many families of asymptotically log del Pezzo surfaces, partially confirming a conjecture of two of us. In an appendix we show that the basis log canonical threshold of Fujita-Odaka coincides with the greatest lower Ricci bound invariant of Tian.

Added: Dec 3, 2018

Working paper

Our study contributes to the debate on the interaction between academic context, individual achievement, and mathematics self-concept in schools. It is known that high-achieving peers positively influence the individual achievements of all group members. At the same time, it has been shown that the self-concept of students tends to decrease in the presence of high-achieving peers, as individuals make relative judgments of their abilities vis-à-vis their peer group. Stu-dents with mediocre performance feel more confident about their abilities in a group of poor achievers (the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect – BFLPE – introduced by H.Marsh). On the other hand, perceived prestige of a school enhances the self-confidence of students as people tend to “bask in the glory” of others (the “reflected glory” effect). We test the two effects mentioned above – BFLPE and the “reflected glory” effect. We hypothesize that both effects are stronger in highly stratified education systems where there is a stronger explicit difference between high- and poor-achieving students, and schools are ranked by their prestige. We compare the interac-tion of academic context, achievement, and mathematics self-concept in stratified (Russia and Czech Republic) and non-stratified (Norway and Sweden) educational systems on the TIMSS’07 database using HLM7. Our study shows: 1) an absence of BFLPE for all four countries, i.e. the achievement of others is positively related to an individual’s math self-concept; 2) strong support for the “reflected glory” effect is found only in stratified educational systems; and 3) greater pos-itive effect on self-concept for students with poor achievement who study in the best schools.

Added: Jun 11, 2013

Working paper

Exploring Bass' Triangulability Problem on unipotent algebraic subgroups of the affine Cremona groups, we prove a triangulability criterion, the existence of nontriangulable connected solvable affine algebraic subgroups of the Cremona groups, and stable triangulability of such subgroups; in particular, in the stable range we answer Bass' Triangulability Problem is the affirmative. To this end we prove a theorem on invariant subfields of $1$-extensions. We also obtain a general construction of all rationally triangulable subgroups of the Cremona groups and, as an application, classify rationally triangulable connected one-dimensional unipotent affine algebraic subgroups of the Cremona groups up to conjugacy.

Added: Apr 16, 2015

Working paper

It was shown in our previous paper that quantum ${\rm gl}_N$ $R$-matrices
satisfy noncommutative analogues of the Fay identities in ${\rm gl}_N^{\otimes
3}$. In this paper we extend the list of $R$-matrix valued elliptic function
identities. We propose counterparts of the Fay identities in ${\rm
gl}_N^{\otimes 2}$, the symmetry between the Planck constant and the spectral
parameter, quasi-periodicities with respect to these variables, the Kronecker
double series representation of the R-matrix. As an application we construct
$R$-matrix valued $2N^2\times 2N^2$ Lax pairs for the Painlev\'e VI equation
(in the elliptic form) with four free constants using ${\mathbb Z}_N\times
{\mathbb Z}_N$ elliptic $R$-matrix. More precisely, the four free constants
case appears for an odd $N$ while even $N$'s correspond to a single constant.

Added: Feb 3, 2015

Working paper

The working paper represents a study of motherhood as a specific semantic construct in contemporary Russia. The author analyses the ways in which knowledge about motherhood produces specific maternal experience. The general theoretical framework is the foucauldian concept of discursive power based on knowledge. At the same time, motherhood is viewed as a class differentiated practice. The primary focus of the analysis is motherhood as experienced by Russian middle class women. The paper discuss how motherhood is discursively produced in the Russian context. The author is interested in the knowledge and discourses that Russian middle class women employ in order to become aware of their motherhood and describe themselves as mothers. The paper describes critical sociological theories of motherhood connecting this phenomenon to such concepts as power, social order and social inequalities. These critical approaches deconstruct the motherhood discourse and reveal that the mother becomes a point of production of social and political order of the modern societies. The analysis of the Russian discourse on motherhood in the political and cultural context is presented by the author as well. The paper elaborates upon the category of “responsibility” as the primary meaning component of middle class motherhood. In the conclusion the issue of why and when Russian mothers are considered “responsible” is discussed

Added: Feb 20, 2015

Working paper

The aim of this study is to compare the sociodemographic events marking the transition to adulthood in France, Estonia and Russia: first leaving parents, completion of education, first partnership, first marriage and first childbirth. We used the first waves of the Generations and Gender Survey for these three countries and an advanced method – Sequence Analysis. According to the Second Demographic Transition Theory, we expected a convergence in the sequencing, timing and tempo of the occurrence of target events. The results showed the slow convergence of sequences, but not of timing and tempo. Estonia and Russia are still close in the timing of the occurrence of events, but in tempo Estonia and France are more alike. The ages at which people start families in Estonia and Russia have decreased in younger generations in comparison with older ones, despite our expectation that they would increase. For the youngest generation (1970s), the time between leaving parents and becoming a parent is 5-7 years in France, 4-6 years in Estonia and 2-3 years in Russia. The sociodemographic behaviour of Estonians clearly positions them between Europe and Russia. Thus, the comparison of France, Estonia and Russia only partially confirms the Second Demographic Transition Theory.

Added: Dec 3, 2017

Working paper

The aim of this study is to compare the sociodemographic events marking the transition to adulthood in France, Estonia and Russia: first leaving parents, completion of education, first partnership, first marriage and first childbirth. We used the first waves of the Generations and Gender Survey for these three countries and an advanced method – Sequence Analysis. According to the Second Demographic Transition Theory, we expected a convergence in the sequencing, timing and tempo of the occurrence of target events. The results showed the slow convergence of sequences, but not of timing and tempo. Estonia and Russia are still close in the timing of the occurrence of events, but in tempo Estonia and France are more alike. The ages at which people start families in Estonia and Russia have decreased in younger generations in comparison with older ones, despite our expectation that they would increase. For the youngest generation (1970s), the time between leaving parents and becoming a parent is 5-7 years in France, 4-6 years in Estonia and 2-3 years in Russia. The sociodemographic behaviour of Estonians clearly positions them between Europe and Russia. Thus, the comparison of France, Estonia and Russia only partially confirms the Second Demographic Transition Theory.

Added: Dec 3, 2017