Equitable commerce: the mediaeval origins of American anarchism
Most studies of pre-modern first-person writings suggest their contextualization. One common way of placing these writings into a context is to approach them in relation to others of the kind – earlier, contemporary or later. The other way, comparatively new and much less common, is to approach them in relation to the concrete social contexts of their appearance and functioning. The article suggests that this second way is particularly helpful for understanding pre-modern first-person narratives better. To prove this suggestion it offers a reading of one such piece of writing as a constituent part of historically specific social activity. The text under discussion is the autobiographical Life (Zhitie) of a Russian monk Epifanij, written around 1675-1676. The analysis of this text is focused on one topic: representations of pain and healing. Within this topic three sections are read in detail: on the author‟s genitals, fingers and tongue. The paper concludes that although each of three refers to a different part of Epifanij‟s body and each is narrated in a different manner, all three have two major characteristics in common. First, they refer to Divine Providence as the only source of healing, and, second, they send a strong propagandist message to their readers. These characteristics support the idea that socio-historical contextualization of pre-modern first-person writings allows for deeper comprehension of their meanings and compositional structures.
This paper argues that while Hobbes has been very influential in sociological thinking, in particular through the influence of Ferdinand Tönnies and Talcott Parsons, there is an important alternative reading of Hobbes that one might call the ‘real’ Hobbes, which has remained unknown to social theory. Because these classical readings of Hobbes still inform most social theory, sociologists are in effect trapped within them. Through a careful analysis of classic interpretations of Hobbes by Tönnies and Parsons, coupled with a close reading of Hobbes’ actual texts, and his criticisms of Aristotle, this paper will suggest that a different understanding of the ‘people’ who populate Hobbes’ social universe is possible. It will be suggested that this new understanding of Hobbes also makes the contemporary understanding of the history of political philosophy more fruitful for theoretical sociology.
The article describes a scale fit for evaluation of tendencies towards authoritarian ideologies. It is constructed on the basis of a system of alternative judgements fixing respondents' agreement by the following axes: collectivism/individualism; hostility/amicability of the surrounding world; equality of relationships with the surrounding world; inclination/opposition to acceptance of absolute authorities; negation/acceptance of universality of moral norms. Authoritarianism indices are presented, calculated for various social groups, proceeding from materials of two mass representative surveys conducted by VCIOM ('Culture', June 1992, and the monitoring, May 1994). The level of authoritarianism sufficiently depends on such factors as the age, education level, status of respondents, the form of propriety of organizations where they work, as well as the degree of adaptedness to the present socio-political situation, and ideological attitudes. Comparison of the two surveys has shown that at present the population of Russia is more strongly attracted by authoritarianisn than liberal notions. On the average in the sample, the correlation of 'authoritarian' and 'not authoritarian' was 3:2.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.