Evolution of labour motivation for textile workers in soviet Russia (1918-1929): a microanalysis of archival data
Outstanding Polish historian and organizer of science, active in cooperation with Russian colleagues, academician Alexander Gieysztor (1916 - 1999) was born in Moscow, which his parents left for Poland after the conclusion of the Treaty of Riga in 1921. The history of Gieysztor's family, quite typical in terms of the generations of the "Russian" Poles represented in it, enables to touch upon a number of key points of Russian-Polish interaction such as hierarchy and dynamics of ethno-cultural identities, choice of strategies of behavior, Russophilia and Russophobia, migrations, cross-cultural dialogue, mechanisms of historical memory. The article is based on Polish and Russian materials including those, which are studied for the first time.
This book contains a unique collection of studies on key economic and social policy challenges faced by countries of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region in a short- and long-term perspective. Prepared within the EU funded FP7 project on „Prospective Analysis for the Mediterranean Region (MEDPRO)” conducted in 2010-2013 it takes account on recent political developments in the region (Arab Spring) and their potential consequences. It covers a broad spectrum of topics such as factors of economic growth, macroeconomic and fiscal stability, trade and investment, Euro-Mediterranean and intra-regional economic integration, private sector development and privatizations, infrastructure, tourism, agriculture, financial sector development, poverty and inequality, education, labor market and gender issues.
The article shows that the business world is Russia at the turn of XIX - XX centuries. had two centers of gravity: if cost (especially in heavy industry and in the banking sector) dominated the Petersburg, in the cultural and socio-political attitude of the province gravitated more to Moscow. While the leaders of big business in Moscow was made by the spokesmen of the interests of the majority of the Russian business of the Corporation.
Using a combination of techniques and tests, reflecting different theoretical approaches to the study of motivation, the analysis and comparative assessment of the structure of the motivation of the two groups - working and non-working young people aged 22-25 years old with higher education. The main results of the study show the maximum severity of professional motivation and meaningful interests in work, and do not reveal specific differences in the structure of motivation among working and non-working young people. Methodological recommendations on the use of work motivation assessment tools are presented.
The purpose of the book is to give a holistic and systematic understanding of the nature, sources, mechanisms of formation and development of labor interests in terms of the personality of the employee, to show the possibilities of using this phenomenon in the field of human resource management. The book is intended for a wide range of readers, namely: for students, graduate students, doctoral students, teachers of higher educational institutions of a psychological, sociological, legal and economic profile, as well as for practitioners in the field of human capital management.
The economic development of any country is determined by the interests of the actors. And this is quite understandable, since both production, trade, and distribution, and consumption are connected not only with material objects, but also with the intellectual spiritual activity of people, with their real labor activity. The development of the economy can not be represented as an active process outside the participation of people. But a one-sided view of interest only from an economic point of view allows us to reveal only a certain set of its characteristics, without providing a complete picture of all its diverse content.
In the modern world it is necessary to consider and evaluate the interests of workers in the course of their work activity in a different way. First, the scale of their expression and reflection has significantly expanded. Secondly, the range of participants in economic activity and the range of their labor interests has become much wider. Third, labor interests, both nationally and internationally, have become much more dense and closely related. Fourth, a profound scientific technical, technological, political and cultural factors influencing the formation and development of labor interests have acquired an unprecedented scale.
Studies of labor interests are very important, since each area of economic, social, legal, pedagogical, psychological, and other sciences makes its own special contribution to the development of the theory and methodology of knowledge of the phenomenon of interest. At the same time, the need to unite the efforts of all schools to form a theory of labor interests, which would form the basis of a new scientific paradigm, seems more and more obvious. Today in science there is no consensus about the concept and nature of labor interests and the ways of their coordination. Despite a significant amount of work related to the analysis of various aspects of labor interests, a number of insufficiently studied theoretical questions remain. Among them: the historical, epistemological and ontological nature of labor interests, the factors determining them; forms and conditions for the realization of interests in modern conditions; the role and place of interests in the mechanism of labor motivation of staff; patterns of formation, functioning and development of the system of labor interests; trends of its transformation.
Of course, one should not exaggerate the possibility of a complete and rigorous description of the changing pattern of labor interests. They are sometimes little predictable and develop outside the general field of view. Deep economic processes in the national and world economy give rise to financial industrial, trade and other crises, which adversely affect the content of labor interests. Some people lose the field of employment and their labor interests are saved rather potentially. Others, on the contrary, gain confidence in the achievement of broader economic goals, and still others try to passively or actively influence the prevention and elimination of crisis phenomena and their labor interests acquire a purely situational character. Much depends on how each worker realizes his place in the real division of labor and seeks to use his potential in the sphere of production. And therefore, psychological science is designed to form and use such models and mechanisms of motivation that give labor activity the character of a powerful and sustainable factor of social development and improvement of the well-being of each employee. One of the backbone and very promising mechanisms for employers motivation is labor interest. That is, labor interest should become the dominant mechanism for influencing the work activity of people. This is one of the conclusions of the author of the book.
Another conclusion is that the purposeful influence of the external social environment serves as an important factor of positive or negative influence on the labor interests, either encouraging active civil or professional actions, or deforming interest to the level of self-serving. Thus, it is necessary to create an external working environment conducive to the formation, maintenance and development of sustainable socially beneficial labor interests. Ways how to do this are outlined in the book.
The author focuses on the feasibility of studying the systemic interaction of the labor interests of different categories of workers - owners, managers, specialists, experts. All this is complemented by an analysis of the influence of interpersonal, group, national and professional, civil interests in labor collectives. Their systemic influence is not yet studied with sufficient depth. Therefore, this monograph opens the first page of a deep study of labor interests.
The book includes three chapters, each of which consists of five sections. The first chapter examines all questions relating to the sources, the nature of labor interests, the conceptual apparatus and the research of scientists in this field. The place of interest in the mechanism of labor motivation and various theories of interests are considered. The author presents a modern classification of labor interests - an ensemble of interests. The prospects for the development of the theory of labor interests within the framework of the psychological sciences, such as social psychology, labor psychology, organizational psychology, etc., are shown.
Chapter 2 provides a psychological model of work interests. Identified sources of interest in labor, both external and internal. The influence of interest on job satisfaction, involvement and loyalty of staff, on professional self-realization of workers and the optimality of work in general is shown. A separate section is devoted to the use of the psychological model of labor interests in the system of human capital management.
Chapter 3 reflects the dynamics of labor interests. Here are the factors influencing the variability of interests — working catalysts and inhibitors, internal obligations, individual values, perfectionism, “inspiring” samples, etc. Revealed ways to stimulate labor interests, which may be practically useful in the management of staff organizations, because they include specific recommendations. Different approaches to the study of labor interests are described in detail, since almost all the tools available at this stage in the development of psychological science to measure the individual structure of workers' interests are presented. The evolution of labor interests, both age and generation, is presented.
The annexes present methods and tools for assessing the structure of employees' interests, job satisfaction, and other features of motivating and stimulating interests.
In conclusion, conclusions are made that allow to state the relevance and scope of the topic of labor interests for psychological science and other social sciences (sociology, law, pedagogy, etc.). The prospects for the study of this problem within the whole spectrum of the social and psychological sciences are shown. New special courses on labor interests are offered for persons studying in the field of social psychology, labor psychology, organizational psychology, personnel management, etc. Recommendations are made for purposeful shaping of labor interests in the practice of socio-psychological services and personnel management departments of companies specialized firms, scientific centers and in the activities of executive and municipal government bodies.
A study of work motivations based on Gerchikov's typological model of motivation in Russian organizations shows that they are influenced by a wide array of factors in addition to wage levels, including place in the organization, career stage, the work environment, and the characteristics of the enterprise.