Срок действия и временная структура торговых соглашений
На основе итогов исследования взаимоотношений между Соединенным Королевством и ЕС в период с середины 1970-х годов автор анализирует переговоры между Лондоном и Брюсселем о выходе Британии из ЕС, стартовавшие в июне 2017 г. Отмечается, что ключевой пункт переговоров -- содержание будущего соглашения о торговле; другой интенсивно обсуждаемый сложный вопрос – о режиме на границе между Ирландией и Северной Ирландией. Устанавливая фактическую безрезультативность переговорного процесса, автор обосновывает вывод, согласно которому брекзит «без сделки» чреват для Соединенного Королевства комплексом негативных экономических, социальных и политических последствий. Этой широко обсуждаемой перспективой во многом объясняется тот факт, что с конца 2017 г. более половины британцев оценивают брекзит отрицательно.
Under Fast-Track Authority (FT), the US Congress commits to an up-or-down vote without amendments for any trade agreement presented for ratification. We interpret FT in terms of a hold-up problem. If the US negotiates an agreement with a smaller economy, businesses there may make sunk investments for the US market. At the ratification stage, the partner economy will be locked in to the US in a way it was not previously and Congress can make changes adverse to the partner, so to convince the partner to negotiate, it must first commit not to amend the agreement. FT is then Pareto-improving.
The article deals with the involvement of the Russian Federation into the world prevailing tendency of liberalization of trade relations between countries by means of the conclusion of the Free Trade Agreements. The analysis of foreign trade relations was considered between the Russian Federation and Vietnam by calculating indexes, trade indicators and using the GTAP model. Also the consequences for Russia’s economy and welfare at conclusion of Free Trade Agreement with Vietnam were revealed. Besides, there are identified countries with which the deepening of the bilateral trade relations may have perspective impact on the industrial and economic development of Russia.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.