In this paper, we regard public procurements as an instrument used by the state for indirect support of enterprises. In this context, we have posed the following questions: what place do the public procurements occupy in the system of relations between business and the state? Can we regard them as a component in "the system of exchanges" between enterprises and authorities? To what extent do public procurements are combined with measures for direct support of enterprises? To answer these questions, we used the data from a survey of enterprises conducted by the Institute for Industrial and Market Studies at the National Research University- Higher School of Economics in 2009. Our analysis gives us grounds to believe that as economic development of a region rises, direct support of enterprises declines giving way to indirect support by means of public procurements.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.