Does Poverty Research in Russia Follow the Scientific Method?
The book shows as at the end of the 18-th – 19-th centuries Russians "populated” the growing public sphere by the voluntary associations, based on the principles of the Age of the Enlightenment. As a result of the mission of scientific associations, the civil society in Russia became unavoidable connected with patriotism and propagation of scientific knowledge. Analyzing the capabilities of scientific associasions for self-identification, independent activity and organization, the book create the wide institutional context, in the framework of which they acted, and also evaluates their role in the development of civil society in tsarist Russia. The development of voluntary associations in Russia is placed into the comparative context of European history and political thought. Although the historians emphasize the special features of the development of the Russian Empire, particular associations in Russia were the part of the European phenomenon. Their history reveals the important features of the relations between the state and the society under the conditions of the absolutism, when voluntary associations were created and was supported the space of public initiative and independent activity, from where the sprouts of citizenship grew.
Formation of democratic societies of the Western type presupposes appearance on the historical scene of a new strong actor - the bourgeois class: "No bourgeoisie, no democracy" (Barrington Moore). The articulation and defense of vital interests of that class creates a new social space - "the bourgeois public sphere" which helps to make up "counterbalance" to absolutism of a corporate state - a civil society, the core of which is composed by public opinion. In the confrontation between the authorities and society one of the most important roles is played by the press that provides free debate and discussion of generally valid problems, especially economic and political. The recognition of the mass media role was stamped in its characterization in XIII century as "the fourth power". Technological development of the media incredibly expanded its functions, turning journalists into creating informational analogue of reality, saturating daily life with new meanings. Methods of the representation of reality, the specific nature of political influence of journalists - key members of the reflexive elites (Helmut Shelski), are the themes of this article.
Публичная сфера, журналистика, четвертая власть, порядки знания, Повседневность, научное и повседневное знание, экспертиза, Репрезентация, public sphere, journalism, fourth estate, orders of knowledge, Everyday life, scientific and everyday knowledge, Expertise, representation
Grigoriy Konson’s interview with MD, Associate Professor at the University of Birmingham Armen Gasparyan unravels the key issues of modern Russian science, which is found now at the intersection of diverse trends. One of the main ones is the increasing visibility of Rus-sian-language scientific journals at the international level and digitalization so that they could technically become high-quality and indexable. To do this, two basic conditions must be observed: authors must possess all copyrights, and their works must be stored in repositories, that are needed by scientists to gain world visibility and long-term use of published materials. Since the Interna-tional Conference in Budapest (2001), a global initiative to publish open access scientific papers has been established. This was done so that scholars working with scientific materials could make them publically available and widely use such materials for scientific purposes. Now there is a tendency to open servers, which contain not only published and peer-reviewed works, but also pre-publication materials. Preprint services became a recent innovation. Media, television, and cinema scholars post scientific materials that have not been published before. This makes it possible to get priority in their writings. There are also tools to promote open access. These are, first of all, digital identifiers of scien-tific materials and authors. Since 2012, digital author identifiers (Open Researcher and Contribu-tor ID [ORCID]) are widely used in many countries; there are more than 6 million registered users. The digital identifier ORCID is popular among Russian-speaking authors as well, but often they use only part of its capabilities. Information about many Russian-speaking authors is not repre-sented in full on the ORCID platform, which means that their works are not visible to the public. The development of open access journals is mainly hampered by the hybrid-type periodicals, combining the principles of open and subscription publications. There are a lot of such journals in Russia. The majority of them are about medicine; and as a matter of fact, digitalization is gradually making the traditional subscription wither away. Therefore, professional communities need to take on the responsibility of financing open access publications to allow journals to advance. In the era of open access, plagiarism can be timely discovered, while in subscription journals it is veiled. Future expectations are that Russian-language periodicals that do not follow new trends in science and publishing can cease to exist. They become bankrupt; they cannot find alternative sources of financing. However, their prestige needs to be enhanced through open access. There should be an increase in the number of multilingual journals that will attract English-language authors.
This book is a collection of scholarly works of the International Z. Shashkin’s Conference in Poetics and Study of Verse
The introduction describes the concept in the "hard"and "soft" sciences.
The problems of the man are examined in the context of the state development, human inner world, and perception of historical events. The researcher has used their private sources such as diaries, memoirs and letters which reflect the levels of spiritual life and psychology of people living in individual historic ages.
F. Mauriacs Bloc-Notes (1952-1970) is the biggest collection of articles of the eminent French novelist and Nobel Prize winner. As an engaged writer and publicist, he provides an acute commentary on politics, history and morality, constantly referring to his inner world. Animalistic characters illustrate human laws and contain a significant moral element, urging people to fight their inner beast.