Variety Of Possible Selves: The Role Of Agency And Empirical Evidence Review
The focus of the study is the relationship between personality development and mechanisms of self-reflection and inner dialogue. Our understanding is based on J. Loevinger’s (1976) theory of ego development stages and D. Leontiev’s (2009) differential self-reflection model. 262 participants of student summer school in Russia (age from 14 to 25 (M=20.03, SD=3.92) were tested on a battery of measurement scales, including: (1). Modified P. Oles’ Inner Dialogical Activity Scale; (2). Differential Self-Reflection Inventory; (3). Russian version of J. Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Systemic reflection and Openness to experience showed significant linear dependencies on Ego Development level. Systemic reflection manifested as a partial mediator of the link between Openness to experience and level of Ego development. The contribution of inner dialogue became visible from the Stage E5 (Selfawareness) on, while below this level self-reflection mechanisms were neither differentiated nor associated with inner dialogical activity.
The research of reflective processes and personality development was conducted with participation of 259 respondents aged from 14 to 25. We measured the ego development level, different facets of reflectiveness and the Big Five traits. The data demonstrates the significant linear dependencies between the forms of reflectiveness and the ego development levels.
In this paper, I will discuss the existing candidates for action-defining entities and structures (the entities and structures which make some X an action) and propose one more candidate. First, I will examine the standard causal theory which became mainstream in analytical philosophy (although this situation is starting to change). Then I will sketch some arguments against the causal theory of action stemming from the works of earlier analytic philosophers, especially from Wittgenstein’s reflections on the nature of the action. Next, I will try to address the problems of action theory by introducing the concept of will as distinguishing feature of actions. Finally, I will discuss the difficulties concerning the concept of will as I construe it in this paper.
The subject of this paper is social self-organisation. The paper presents two models of consensual agreement and two forms of social self-organization, and the differences between the organisation and the self-organization. The paper describes the constructive function the conflict plays in sociology, pedagogy and psychology, its role in personality development and the specifics of personality self-organisation.
The article reflects upon the ‘look’ phenomenon in the context of new personology (V.A. Petrovsky, E.B. Starovoytenko). It reveals that the look expresses an attitude of the Other and his/her presence in one’s inner world. Using the works of J.-P. Sartre, V.A. Petrovsky, M.M. Bakhtin, E.B. Starovoytenko, A. Laengle, M. White, the ‘loving’ and the ‘destructive look’ were reconstructed and described in terms of personal agency. The ways to expand one’s personal agency in the situations of ‘being-looked’ (Sartre) are outlined.
the look, personal agency, relationship with oneself, personology
The article analyses the notion of metapathology introduced in the late works of A. Maslow. It characterizes personality disorders as a sequence of a decrease in humaneness, as a manifestation of social shortcomings. The article justifies that «Metapathological» variants which are not optimal for personality development can be regarded as dilemmas.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.