POPULISM AND PROTEST INTENSITY: A CROSS-NATIONAL ANALYSIS
This paper is concerned with patterns of mobilization of the radical left-libertarian movement (RLLM) groups in contemporary Russia and how these patterns correspond to general features of the country’s political sphere. On a theoretical level, the concept of political opportunity structures (POS) will be engaged and critically discussed in order to understand the relationship between the state’s approach to non-institutionalized, contentious politics and the contents and forms of protest action by RLLM groups. Empirically, the chapter analyses data on protest events in order to produce insights into mobilization patterns of radical left-libertarian actors in contemporary Russia.
In the frame of the third-order nonlinear wave dispersion theory the equation of motion of a vector wave packets mass center taken in to account arbitrary inhomogeneity profile is obtained. As short vector wave packets localized motion as infinite motion is shown. Short vector wave packets localizations area can be as bigger as smaller in comparison with long vector wave packets localizations area. The effect depend from third-order linear dispersion parameter.
The chapter examines Russian Jews’ participation in Russian political parties as a consequence of their integration into Russian society, and the role of the Jews in various political parties in late XIX – early XX centuries, from social-democrats to cadets.
The interaction of short single-component vector solitons in the frame of the coupled third–order nonlinear Schrodinger equations taking into account third–order linear dispersion, self–stepping, self–stimulated Ramanscattering, cross–stepping and cross–stimulated Raman-scattering terms is considered. Conditions of reflection and propagation of the solitons through each other and also the condition of oscillator interaction (vector breather) are obtained.
The Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) project relies on country experts who code a host of ordinal variables, providing subjective ratings of latent|that is, not directly observable regime characteristics over time. Sets of around ve experts rate each case (country-year observation), and each of these raters works independently. Since raters may diverge in their coding because of either differences of opinion or mistakes, we require systematic tools with which to model these patterns of disagreement. These tools allow us to aggregate ratings into point estimates of latent concepts and quantify our uncertainty around these point estimates. In this chapter we describe item response theory models that can that account and adjust for differential item functioning (i.e. differences in how experts apply ordinal scales to cases) and variation in rater reliability (i.e. random error). We also discuss key challenges specic to applying item response theory to expert-coded cross-national panel data, explain the approaches that we use to address these challenges, highlight potential problems with our current framework, and describe long-term plans for improving our models and estimates. Finally, we provide an overview of the different forms in which we present model output.