Helical edge modes of 2D topological insulators are supposed to be protected from time-reversal invariant elastic backscattering. Yet substantial deviations from the perfect conductance are typically observed experimentally down to very low temperatures. To resolve this conundrum we consider the effect of a single magnetic impurity with arbitrary spin on the helical edge transport. We consider the most general structure of the exchange interaction between the impurity and the edge electrons. Moreover, for the first time, we take into the account the local anisotropy for the impurity and show that it strongly affects the backscattering current in a wide range of voltages and temperatures. We show that the sensitivity of the backscattering current to the presence of the local anisotropy is different for half-integer and integer values of the impurity spin. In the latter case the anisotropy can significantly increase the backscattering correction to the current.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.