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Working paper

On the Impact of Word Error Rate on Acoustic-Linguistic Speech Emotion Recognition: An Update for the Deep Learning Era

Sokolov A.
Text encodings from automatic speech recognition (ASR) transcripts and audio representations have shown promise in speech emotion recognition (SER) ever since. Yet, it is challenging to explain the effect of each information stream on the SER systems. Further, more clarification is required for analysing the impact of ASR's word error rate (WER) on linguistic emotion recognition per se and in the context of fusion with acoustic information exploitation in the age of deep ASR systems. In order to tackle the above issues, we create transcripts from the original speech by applying three modern ASR systems, including an end-to-end model trained with recurrent neural network-transducer loss, a model with connectionist temporal classification loss, and a wav2vec framework for self-supervised learning. Afterwards, we use pre-trained textual models to extract text representations from the ASR outputs and the gold standard. For extraction and learning of acoustic speech features, we utilise openSMILE, openXBoW, DeepSpectrum, and auDeep. Finally, we conduct decision-level fusion on both information streams -- acoustics and linguistics. Using the best development configuration, we achieve state-of-the-art unweighted average recall values of 73.6% and 73.8% on the speaker-independent development and test partitions of IEMOCAP, respectively.