Tavern Revenues and Alcohol Consumption in the Muscovite State in mid-Seventeenth Century
This paper reviews the literature on a theme of influence of alcohol consumption on wages and employment of workers on a labour market. The authors considering overconsumption of alcohol as disease, observed negative influence of abusing alcohol on individual's position on labour market. However some economists have found out positive communication between moderate consumption of alcohol and wages, explaining the given fact to that moderate consumption of alcohol improves health, reducing probability of cardiovascular diseases.
The chapter provides a review of contemporary life style policies in Russia highlighting main issues and suggesting some improvements in governmental interventions.
This paper examines the influence of alcohol consumption on employment, working hours and income of workers on Russian labor market using the data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) from 2007 to 2009. For the purpose of correcting for endogeneity of alcohol consumption and estimation of complex influence of alcohol consumption on the position of the individual on the labor market the system of simultaneous equation was used. Estimates of the coefficients received using a method of maximum simulated likelihood. The result shows that moderate drinkers have higher probability of employment, work more hours and have higher income than abstainers or heavy drinkers. However heavy drinking for males has a negative effect on labor market relative to abstention and moderate drinking reducing probability of employment, hours of work and income. For females heavy drinking is positively connected with income and hours of work relative to abstention, but leads to lower probability of employment.
Aims: This study compared the level of alcohol mortality in tsarist and contemporary Russia. Methods: Cross-sectional and annual time-series data from 1870 to 1894, 2008 and 2009 on the mortality rate from deaths due to ‘drunkenness’ were compared for men in the 50 provinces of tsarist ‘European Russia’: an area that today corresponds with the territory occupied by the Baltic countries, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian provinces to the west of the Ural Mountains. Results: In 1870–1894, the male death rate from ‘drunkenness’ in the Russian provinces (15.9 per 100,000) was much higher than in the non-Russian provinces. However, the rate recorded in Russia in the contemporary period was even higher—23.3. Conclusions: Russia has had high levels of alcohol mortality from at least the late 19th century onwards. While a dangerous drinking pattern and spirits consumption may underpin high alcohol mortality across time, the seemingly much higher levels in the contemporary period seem to be also driven by an unprecedented level of consumption, and also possibly, surrogate alcohol use. This study highlights the urgent need to reduce the level of alcohol consumption among the population in order to reduce high levels of alcohol mortality in contemporary Russia.