How do trade and communication costs shape the spatial organization of firms?
The results of empirical study of the role of climato-economic characteristics of 85 Russian regions in the formation of collectivism on their territory are presented. Based on the results of previous research, authors suggested that in regions with sufficient level of economic resources of population for satisfying its needs that arise in accordance to more demanding climate the level of collectivism is lower, and vice versa in regions with insufficient level of economic resources of population for satisfying its needs the collectivism level is higher. These theoretical assumptions were verified, using database «EMISS», which made it possible to operationalize and calculate the index of collectivism for each region, based on statistical data. As predictors that influence the collectivism level in regions, the climate demand of regions and the economic resources of their population are considered. The study results have shown that the climatic demand in regions and the economic resources of their population can be predictors of the collectivism level on their territory.
The article considers a system of factors that contribute to the successful development of national regions. The author emphasizes that, despite the fact that each factor is very important for the economic development different regions, the biggest effect can be obtained by using the entire set of factors due to the their interconnection. Such interconnection should be taken into account in the documents defining the development strategy of certain territories.
The aim of this paper is to examine the development of a financial framework for assessing the effectiveness of interventions. The research is based on the evidence from Serbia. In terms of methods applied, we used econometric and scenario analysis. We presented - as individual separate items - the issues such as "who" - Government budget (Ministry, specific program, loan, donor, etc.), "how much" - the amount spent, "where" (NUTS 2 region), and on "what" (type of initiative). In our model, each of the interventions applied to one of the regional development priorities is linked and evaluated by its effectiveness observing the performance of the group of indicators associated with each of the priorities. All data obtained from 8 sectors were categorized under 4 priorities, i.e. "People, Place, Productive Capacity, and Institutional Capacity". Accordingly, we evaluate the effectiveness by observing the performance of a group of indicators related to each of the priorities. Our recommendations for optimizing the distribution structure of regional policies and regions are determined by the analysis of the performance of the group of indicators and their relative rankings per NUTS 2 region. The results are significant for further theoretical and applied research, as well as decision- making in the field of government financial policy. Our results confirmed that calculations of funds for regional development in strategic areas appear to be slightly problematic because, in the past, there was no strategic distribution based on established facts, which could be measured in terms of performance.
We consider an economic geography setting in which firms are free to choose one of the following organizational types: (i) integrated firms, which perform all their activities at the same location, (ii) horizontal firms, which operate several plants producing the same good at different locations, and (iii) vertical firms, which perform distinct activities at separated locations. We show that there exists a unique organizational equilibrium, which typically involves the coexistence of various organizational forms. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for the three types of firms to coexist within the same region and show that transportation and communication costs have opposite effects on firms’ organizational choices. This suggests that, depending on its nature, the supply of a new transportation infrastructure may lead to contrasted locational patterns.
Volume is devoted to the problems of regional development of Russia. The issues of structuring of sociogeographi- cal space of our country, the most important factors and the latest trends of its regional development, differentiation between Russian regions by a variety of socioeconomic, demographic, ecological parameters, as well as key issues of re¬gional policy in Russia are considered. Particular attention is paid to identifying the specifics of the Russian regions (from macro-regions to federal subjects), with emphasis on the analysis of regional problems and concrete complex situations.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.