Gradable Predicates in Russian Sign Language
The argument constructions of adjectives has largely been out of the scope of research on semantic roles both in theoretical and IT fields. Before adding the roles of adjectival arguments to the network of semantic roles it is important to determine whether the adjectival roles form a separate list or whether they can be seen as an extension of roles assigned to the patterns of verbs and nominalizations. We discuss the general principles of how the inventory of adjectival roles should be organized in comparison with the existing inventories of verbal roles. In order to verify our statements, we carry out an experimental survey aimed at measuring the similarity between adjectival and verbal roles. The results have shown that both semantic interpretation of roles and their typical morpho-syntactic expression are significant for the evaluation and should be taken into account in working out the inventory. Besides, the specificity of adjectives lies in their prototypical stative semantics, which favors some differences in assigning a semantic role as compared to verbs. The results of the survey also provide some evidence for verification and development the inventory of verbal semantic roles.
The paper discusses the results of a series of experimental studies on scalar inferences, which is part of linguistic pragmatics. The findings argue for intrascalar and interscalar diversity of scalar inferences. Moreover, it shows that adjectival scalar inferences are derived at a relatively low rate.
Development of an inclusive society challenges researchers to study
representatives of various social groups, including those with unique
cognitive and communicative characteristics. One of these groups is the
deaf and hard of hearing, which differs significantly from other people with
disabilities in cultural and linguistic aspects. This article deals with the
difficulties that sociologists face interviewing the deaf and hard of hearing.
The authors consider the main cognitive and communicative features of this
group that influence the course of questioning, the role of sign language
in the perception of a sociological survey (including in writing form),
analyze the specifics of question-and-answer communication with deaf
respondents, which consists, first of all, of a difficult semantic and contextual
understanding of questions. The authors also describe the specifics of
information perception by respondents with hearing impairments using
specific examples from the researcher practice. Based on expert interviews
and methodological reflections on the results of several empirical studies,
the authors suggest possible ways to improve the quality of communication
between the hearing researcher and the deaf respondent, as well as increase
the validity of the data obtained during the survey.
The article proposes an analysis of three semantic fields in Russian Sign Language (RSL): ‘thick’, ‘thin’ and ‘pointed’. These fields are covered in RSL with a particular group of signs, namely, size and shape specifiers (SASSes). The paper describes features of SASSes in other sign languages, known from previous research, and proposes an analysis of these signs in RSL based on a detailed study of their contexts. Particularly, the article argues for distinguishing two types of components in these signs (specified and non-specified ones), discusses the semantics of non-manual markers and describes two morphological forms of SASSes.
The article presents the Typological Database of Qualities, which aims at providing a new tool for research in lexical typology. The database contains information on the lexicalization of several semantic fields of adjectives in different languages (like ‘sharp’ — ‘blunt’, ‘empty’ — ‘full’, ‘solid’ — ‘soft’, ‘thick’ — ‘thin’, ‘smooth’ — ‘rough’, etc.). We discuss issues concerning database structure (in particular, the choice of information units that would make the meanings from different languages comparable to each other). Special attention is devoted to the representation of figurative meanings in the Database which allows to investigate the models of their derivation from the literal meanings. The developed database can be used for solving both theoretical and practical tasks. On the practical level, the Database may serve as a multilingual dictionary which accounts for fine-grained differences in meaning between individual words. On the theoretical side, the Database allows for various generalizations on cross-linguistic patterns of polysemy and semantic change.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.