VISUALIZING ATTRACTIVE SPOTS FOR VISITORS AND THE MAKING OF THE TOURIST PLACES AT THE BLACK SEA COAST OF RUSSIA (THE END OF THE 19TH AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 20-TH CENTURIES)
Russian guidebooks evolved to become more practical and utilitarian at end of the 19th century, several decades later than in Europe. By analyzing an extensive body of Russian travel guides, we explore the network of actors who actively engaged in this transformation. We approach travel guides as complex artifacts that combine social interaction and market logistics, integrating elements from the past and present, from different geographical locations, and from the various professional activities of authors, publishers, and entrepreneurs to inform increasingly diverse consumers. Approaching travel guides collectively as a boundary object helps shed light on the processes of commercialization of travel and emergence of the tourism industry in the Russian Empire, which were set in motion not only by work arrangements of governmental bodies but also, and more significantly, by public and commercial initiatives.
This article examines special features of pleasure gardens (amusement parks) in the late imperial Russia and demonstrates them as sociocultural phenomena. The author attempts to broaden the horizon of the urban leisure studies by addressing to the experience of amusement parks and urban history studies gained by the foreign colleagues. Pleasure gardens appeared to be remarkable phenomena in the urban space of the late imperial Russia in both, a province and capital cities. They managed to become the fin-de-siècle translators of the developing mass culture and were also a place where high culture met the low. The author stresses the significant contribution of the pleasure gardens into the leveling of the audience tastes and into the leisure democratization.