This paper analyzes the governmental regulation of the rental housing market in the states that arose on the ruins of the Russian Empire during the Russian Civil war in 1918–1922. Geographically it covers the territories that were under control of the Province of the the Armed Forces of South Russia, Crimean Regional Government, Don Cossack Host, the Far Eastern Republic, the Provisional government of the Northern region, the Provisional government of Siberia, and Soviet Russia as well as national states, such as Azerbaijan, Armenia, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. It examines and compares three major tools of the restrictive housing policy: rent control, protection of tenants from eviction, and housing rationing. It shows an emergence, evolution, continuity of the housing legislation of these governments with respect to that of the All-Russian Provisional government and its relationship with the housing policies of Bolsheviks. Despite sometimes radically opposite ideological attitudes, different governments reacted in a similar way to the acute housing shortage by intervening into the housing market. Finally, government regulations of the rental housing market on the territory of the former Russian Empire is put into European context using the regulation intensity indices constructed by the author. In Russia, the governmental regulation of the housing market emerged somewhat later than in Europe in general. However, in Soviet Russia it turned into a permanent regulation and remained in force until the early 1990s, while many European countries already in the early 1920s began to deregulate.
The paper aims at measuring the general state intervention in rental housing market in Germany from 1913 through 2015. Four policy classes are considered: Incentives for social housing, tenant protection, housing rationing, and rent controls. Based on a legislation analysis, for each class an index measuring the degree of regulation is constructed. The indices reflect dramatic increases in regulations during and after the World Wars. The 2010s are characterized by a surge in all classes of regulations related to the growing housing scarcity in large cities due to interregional migration leading to a geographical mismatch between housing supply and demand.