### Working paper

## Pullbacks of hyperplane sections for Lagrangian fibrations are primitive

The Kobayashi pseudometric on a complex manifold is the maximal pseudometric such that any holomorphic map from the Poincaré disk to the manifold is distance-decreasing. Kobayashi has conjectured that this pseudometric vanishes on Calabi–Yau manifolds. Using ergodicity of complex structures, we prove this for all hyperkähler manifold with b_2\geqslant 7 that admits a deformation with a Lagrangian fibration and whose Picard rank is not maximal. The Strominger-Yau-Zaslow (SYZ) conjecture claims that parabolic nef line bundles on hyperkähler manifolds are semi-ample. We prove that the Kobayashi pseudometric vanishes for any hyperkähler manifold with b_2\geqslant 7 if the SYZ conjecture holds for all its deformations. This proves the Kobayashi conjecture for all K3 surfaces and their Hilbert schemes.

Let M be a closed symplectic manifold of volume V. We say that M admits an unobstructed symplectic packing by balls if any collection of symplectic balls (of possibly different radii) of total volume less than V admits a symplectic embedding to M. In 1994 McDuff and Polterovich proved that symplectic packings of Kahler manifolds can be characterized in terms of the Kahler cones of their blow-ups. When M is a Kahler manifold which is not a union of its proper subvarieties (such a manifold is called Campana simple) these Kahler cones can be described explicitly using the Demailly and Paun structure theorem. We prove that any Campana simple Kahler manifold, as well as any manifold which is a limit of Campana simple manifolds in a smooth deformation, admits an unobstructed symplectic packing by balls. This is used to show that all even-dimensional tori equipped with Kahler symplectic forms and all hyperkahler manifolds of maximal holonomy admit unobstructed symplectic packings by balls. This generalizes a previous result by Latschev-McDuff-Schlenk. We also consider symplectic packings by other shapes and show, using Ratner's orbit closure theorem, that any even-dimensional torus equipped with a Kahler form whose cohomology class is not proportional to a rational one admits a full symplectic packing by any number of equal polydisks (and, in particular, by any number of equal cubes).

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.