### Working paper

## Instantons in sigma model and tau functions

We construct a compactification $M^{μss}$ of the Uhlenbeck–Donaldson type for the moduli space of slope stable framed bundles. This is a kind of a moduli space of slope semistable framed sheaves. We show that there exists a projective morphism $\gamma: M^{ss}\to M^{μss}$, where $M^{μss}$ is the moduli space of $S$-equivalence classes of Gieseker-semistable framed sheaves. The space $M^{μss}$ has a natural set-theoretic stratification which allows one, via a Hitchin–Kobayashi correspondence, to compare it with the moduli spaces of framed ideal instantons.

We describe new components of the Gieseker–Maruyama moduli scheme (Formula presented.) of semistable rank 2 sheaves E on (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) whose generic point corresponds to nonlocally free sheaves. We show that such components grow in number as n grows, and discuss how they intersect the instanton component. As an application, we prove that (Formula presented.) is connected, and identify a connected subscheme of (Formula presented.) consisting of seven irreducible components.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.