### Working paper

## Hilbert schemes of lines and conics and automorphism groups of Fano threefolds

Marc Haiman has reduced Macdonald Positivity Conjecture to a statement about geometry of the Hilbert scheme of points on the plane, and formulated a generalization of the conjecture where the symmetric group is replaced by the wreath product of S_n and Z/rZ. He has proven the original conjecture by establishing the geometric statement about the Hilbert scheme, as a byproduct he obtained a derived equivalence between coherent sheaves on the Hilbert scheme and coherent sheaves on the orbifold quotient of A^{2n} by the symmetric group S_n. A short proof of a similar derived equivalence for any symplectic quotient singularity has been obtained by the first author and Kaledin via quantization in positive characteristic. In the present note we prove various properties of these derived equivalences and then deduce generalized Macdonald positivity for wreath products.

Let X be a Q-Fano 3-fold of rank 1 with qQ(X)=qF(X)=2 and KX not Cartier. Let A be a Weil divisor on X such that −KX = 2A. Then dim |A| ≤ 4. Moreover, if dim |A| = 4, then X belongs to the single irreducible family.

In this paper we prove that the generating series of the Poincare polynomials of quasihomogeneous Hilbert schemes of points in the plane has a beautiful decomposition into an infinite product. We also compute the generating series of the numbers of quasihomogeneous components in a moduli space of sheaves on the projective plane. The answer is given in terms of characters of the affine Lie algebra~$\widehat{sl}_m$.

We introduce the notion of an instanton bundle on a Fano threefold of index 2. For such bundles we give an analogue of a monadic description and discuss the curve of jumping lines. The cases of threefolds of degree 5 and 4 are considered in a greater detail.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.