Apéry constants of homogeneous varieties
The asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the quantum differential equation of a Fano manifold F defines a characteristic class A_F of F, called the principal asymptotic class. Gamma conjecture of Vasily Golyshev and the present authors claims that the principal asymptotic class A_F equals the Gamma class associated to Euler's Gamma-function. We illustrate in the case of toric varieties, toric complete intersections and Grassmannians how this conjecture follows from mirror symmetry. We also prove that Gamma conjecture is compatible with taking hyperplane sections, and give a heuristic argument how the mirror oscillatory integral and the Gamma class for the projective space arise from the polynomial loop space.
The quantum period of a variety X is a generating function for certain Gromov-Witten invariants of X which plays an important role in mirror symmetry. In this paper we compute the quantum periods of all 3-dimensional Fano manifolds. In particular we show that 3-dimensional Fano manifolds with very ample anticanonical bundle have mirrors given by a collection of Laurent polynomials called Minkowski polynomials. This was conjectured in joint work with Golyshev. It suggests a new approach to the classification of Fano manifolds: by proving an appropriate mirror theorem and then classifying Fano mirrors. Our methods are likely to be of independent interest. We rework the Mori-Mukai classification of 3-dimensional Fano manifolds, showing that each of them can be expressed as the zero locus of a section of a homogeneous vector bundle over a GIT quotient V/G, where G is a product of groups of the form GL_n(C) and V is a representation of G. When G=GL_1(C)^r, this expresses the Fano 3-fold as a toric complete intersection; in the remaining cases, it expresses the Fano 3-fold as a tautological subvariety of a Grassmannian, partial flag manifold, or projective bundle thereon. We then compute the quantum periods using the Quantum Lefschetz Hyperplane Theorem of Coates-Givental and the Abelian/non-Abelian correspondence of Bertram-Ciocan-Fontanine-Kim-Sabbah.
Given a Laurent polynomial f, one can form the period of f: this is a function of one complex variable that plays an important role in mirror symmetry for Fano manifolds. Mutations are a particular class of birational transformations acting on Laurent polynomials in two variables; they preserve the period and are closely connected with cluster algebras. We propose a higher-dimensional analog of mutation acting on Laurent polynomials f in n variables. In particular we give a combinatorial description of mutation acting on the Newton polytope P of f, and use this to establish many basic facts about mutations. Mutations can be understood combinatorially in terms of Minkowski rearrangements of slices of P, or in terms of piecewise-linear transformations acting on the dual polytope P* (much like cluster transformations). Mutations map Fano polytopes to Fano polytopes, preserve the Ehrhart series of the dual polytope, and preserve the period of f. Finally we use our results to show that Minkowski polynomials, which are a family of Laurent polynomials that give mirror partners to many three-dimensional Fano manifolds, are connected by a sequence of mutations if and only if they have the same period.
We consider mirror symmetry for Fano manifolds, and describe how one can recover the classification of 3-dimensional Fano manifolds from the study of their mirrors. We sketch a program to classify 4-dimensional Fano manifolds using these ideas.
We classify smooth del Pezzo surfaces whose α-invariant of Tian is bigger than 1.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.