The article briefly discusses the changes associated with parenthood and parental experience. One of the important characteristics of modern parenthood is the diversification of parental experience. There are many different discourses of parenthood, and specific parent needs to determine his or her own position. Educational programs for parents, training and courses help to solve this problem. Internal personal resources are important in the development of such programs, in particular parental self-efficacy is a promising concept for research and practice.
he article considers the main stages in the development of educational programs for parents in Europe, USA and Russia. The authors trace changes in the content of the programs from the emergence of the first schools for mothers, focused on informing parents in the field of hygiene and health issues, till the emergence of parenting trainings for the development of parental competencies and skills. Currently the main trend in the development of educational programs for parents is their orientation to the personality of the parent. The article explains the use of the category of parental self-efficacy for designing educational programs.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.