Hunting activities of Russian Pomors on Spitsbergen in the 18th century: new evidences in transnational perspective.
This article reviews the institutional economics researches of slavery and serfdom. The exploration of the comparative institutional advantages and disadvantages of forced labor enriches various historical studies. On the example of the Great Princedom of Moscow, author considers reasons for establishment of the serfdom and how it affected the distribution of welfare.
As a result of war with France, British tariffs were raised to protect domestic beverage production. This helped promote the beer industry during the infancy of industrial brewing in the 18th century. But protection also led to monopoly controls in order to promote easier taxation and greater regulatory oversight. This chapter shows that this severely distorted the consumption of alcohol and the production of domestic substitutes like beer in Britain, but that it also enabled the state to grow by providing it with a mechanism for dramatically raising taxes to fund the century's many wars. Reversing protection in the 19th century was complicated and fraught with interference from domestic lobbies that hampered the British move to free trade.
«Менеджерлерге арнал#ан экономика» кітабы о9ырманды зама-
науи 9о#амда аса 9ажетті болып табылатын ?рі экономикалы9 ойлауды
9алыптастыру#а ы9пал ететін микро ж?не макроэкономика моделдеріні/
негізгі M#ым-тOсініктерімен таныстырады. Атал#ан о9улы9ты/ ерекшелігі,
мMнда теориялы9 моделдер мен тMжырымдарды/ практикалы9 9ызмет ба-
рысында пайдаланылуына басты назар аударылады. Экономист-аналитик-
терге, сарапшылар#а арнал#ан экономикалы9 теория бойынша д?стOрлі
о9улы9тардан айырмашылы#ы, «Менеджерлерге арнал#ан экономика» биз-
нес 9Mрылымдарда 9ызмет ететін немесе осы салада жMмыс жасауды жоспар-
лап жOрген практик мамандар#а арнал#ан. Кітапта іс жOзінде 9ызмет ат9арып
жат9ан нары9тар мен компанияларды/ на9ты мысалдары, тапсырмалар
(жауаптары берілген) ж?не кейстер келтірілген.
О9улы9, е/ біріншіден, «Мастер делового администрирования — Master
of Business Administration (MBA)» білім беру ба#дарламасы бойынша 9осымша
к?сіби білім алушылар#а арнал#ан. Сонымен 9атар экономика саласына
9ызы#ушылы9 танытатын 9алы/ кHпшілік 9ауым#а — студенттерге, экономика
п?ніні/ о9ытушыларына, жо#ар#ы ж?не орта буын менеджерлеріне арнал#ан.
The book is the first collection of documents in Russian historical science covering the practice of organizing navigation and developing the natural resources of the Spitsbergen archipelago in the 18th-early 20th centuries. XIX century. The Russian state and Pomor people are residents of the Russian North. The publication is preceded by a study that examines the most significant aspects of the topic, as well as various problems and approaches to them in domestic and foreign historiography.On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the sources of different species and their cross-matching, the full picture of the development of Russian crafts in Spitsbergen in the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century was compiled, as far as possible. Archival documents first introduced into scientific circulation, as well as additional materials included in the annexes, will significantly expand the possibilities for further research on the history of the Russian presence in Spitsbergen and, more broadly, Russia's role in the development of the European part of the Arctic, will allow them to be introduced into the international context that is necessary for understanding the history of the development of this Arctic archipelago.
The University training discipline “International financial markets” studies the behavior of economic institutions (business, fi nancial institutes, governments, individuals) in the multicurrency environment. The text consists of two sections, 6 chapters. The world monetary system, exchange rates and “forex” markets are considered in part I. The international money and capital mar kets, and multicurrency investments are studied in part II. The text is focused on the university students of the undergraduate and graduate levels, and business practitioners. Authors intended to instill in the readers a taste for work with the theoretical concepts, the empirical data, describing the evolution, current con- ditions and prospects of the international financial environment’ development in the framework of business decisions making.
The paper is focused on the practical issues connected to the organization of Russian hunting expeditions to Spitsbergen in the 18th century including some administrative regulation of Spitsbergen shipping. Using the wide range of archival materials, the authors study the social status and geographical origin of organizers and participants of Spitsbergen hunting.
The article considers the processes of progress in production and service sectors and answers the question how and thanks to what service sector of Russian economy left the productive one behind (concerning contribution in GDP of our country). The rates of development of service sector turned out to be so high firstly - as a reason of peculiarities of new Russian economy, which historically was built on the market principles and was developing in conditions of investment resources deficit, secondly - as a reason of system differences between «physical» goods and services as an object of sale. Nowadays Russia faces an unusual symbiosis: effective service companies, operating in hard competitive sphere with average profitability and non-affective from the point of management industrial companies, which thanks to monopolistic pricing have great profitability, providing profits of Russian budget and determining a macroeconomic situation.