AGE FEATURES OF A HAPPY LIFE IN RUSSIA AND EUROPE: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS
Purpose: Life satisfaction is an important social indicator of life quality of the population. Modern researches show that income is one of the most significant components of life satisfaction. The article describes the Easterlin paradox with regard to Russia, provides a statistical analysis of the relationship income, wealth and the level of life satisfaction in Russia. The article presents the main theoretical concepts which used in the economics of happiness and for analysis of empirical models. Methods. Еconometric methods and statistical analysis (cluster analysis and a binary choice models) are used. To evaluate the income effect on life satisfaction in Russia marginal effects of income and probability increment of life satisfaction were estimated based on binary choice model of RLMS for 2012. Results: А family, gender (men are happier than women), good health, own car has a positive effect on life satisfaction. On average income has a positive effect on life satisfaction, but this effect is nonlinear. The results confirm the adaptation effect with saturation point in 60000 rub.
The article examines differences between two Russian regions – Moscow and Bashkortostan – through the following socio-psychological indicators: perceived social capital, trust, civil identity, life satisfaction, and economic attitudes.
The philosophical and psychological views on the problem of happiness since Aristotle to our days are summarized. Building on both philosophical discussions and recent data of sociological and psychological research, the author reveals two qualitatively distinct phenomena behind the common word “happiness”, that have different attributes and regularities. The firs one is the experience of subjective well-being that is directly associated with the basic needs gratification, while the second one is the experience of enjoyment as the experience of being engaged in some personally meaningful activity or close relationships.
This paper examines correlations between the genetic characteristics of human populations and their aggregate levels of tolerance and happiness. A metadata analysis of genetic polymorphisms supports the interpretation that a major cause of the systematic clustering of genetic characteristics may be climatic conditions linked with relatively high or low levels of parasite vulnerability. This led vulnerable populations to develop gene pools conducive to avoidance of strangers, while less-vulnerable populations developed gene pools linked with lower levels of avoidance. This, in turn, helped shape distinctive cultures and subsequent economic development. Survey evidence from 48 countries included in the World Values Survey suggests that a combination of cultural, economic and genetic factors has made some societies more tolerant of outsiders and more predisposed to accept gender equality than others. These relatively tolerant societies also tend to be happier, partly because tolerance creates a less stressful social environment. Though economic development tends to make all societies more tolerant and open to gender equality and even somewhat happier, these findings suggest that cross-national differences in how readily these changes are accepted, may reflect genetically-linked cultural differences.
On the 28th July, His Revered Majesty, the King of Bhutan issued a Royal Edict to formally convene an International Expert Working Group and its Steering Committee, with members appointed individually. The outcomes and results of the Working Group were to be presented to the United Nations during the 68th and 69th Sessions of the Generally Assembly in 2013 and 2014. The current report submitted to the 68th Session of the General Assembly in 2013 has been prepared by the Working Group on Happiness and Wellbeing, with the second report due to be submitted to the 69th Session of the General Assembly in 2014. The current report includes thorough literature reviews and examinations of existing best practices, to achieve a clear understanding on the actual, practical workings of the new paradigm and to provide practical suggestions on possible policies that can be put in place by governments around the world.
The notions of happiness and trust as cements of the social fabric and political legitimacy have a long history in Western political thought. However, despite the great contemporary relevance of both subject, and burgeoning literatures in the social sciences around them, historians and historians of thought have, with some exceptions, unduly neglected them. In Trust and Happiness in the History of European Political Thought, editors Laszlo Kontler and Mark Somos bring together twenty scholars from different generations and academic traditions to redress this lacuna by contextualising historically the discussion of these two notions from ancient Greece to Soviet Russia. Confronting this legacy and deep reservoir of thought will serve as a tool of optimising the terms of current debates.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.