Ранжирование вузов по баллам ЕГЭ методами сравнения нечетких чисел
The companies that are IT-industry leaders perform from several tens to several hundreds of projects simultaneously. The main problem is to decide whether the project is acceptable to the current strategic goals and resource limits of a company or not. This leads firms to an issue of a project portfolio formation; therefore, the challenge is to choose the subset of all projects which satisfy the strategic objectives of a company in the best way. In this present article we propose the multi-objective mathematical model of the project portfolio formation problem, defined on the fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. We provide an overview of methods for solving this problem, which are a branch and bound approach, an adaptive parameter variation scheme based on the epsilon-constraint method, ant colony optimization method and genetic algorithm. After analysis, we choose ant colony optimization method and SPEA II method, which is a modification of a genetic algorithm. We describe the implementation of these methods applied to the project portfolio formation problem. The ant colony optimization is based on the max min ant system with one pheromone structure and one ant colony. Three modification of our SPEA II implementation were considered. The first adaptation uses the binary tournament selection, while the second requires the rank selection method. The last one is based on another variant of generating initial population. The part of the population is generated by a non-random manner on the basis of solving a one-criterion optimization problem. This fact makes the population more strongly than an initial population, which is generated completely by random. Comparing of ant colony optimization algorithm and three modifications of a genetic algorithm was performed. We use the following parameters: speed of execution and the C-metric between each pair of algorithms. Genetic algorithm with non-random initial population show better results than other methods. Thus, we propose using this algorithm for solving project portfolio formation problem.
The model presented in this paper illustrates a possibility of use of fuzzy sets' approach for analysis of labor surplus on a firm. Uncertainty is implemented in optimization equation in order to forecast necessary amount of labor resources, as well as presence or absence of labor surplus on an enterprise.
Moreover, the comparison of presented approach to possibility, statistical and some other methods has been made.
This paper is devoted to study of stability of comparison of histograms with help of different probability methods. Background: The comparison of histograms is necessary in many applied problems of data processing. The comparison of type ”more-less” is considered in this paper. But the histograms may be distorted. The nature of these distortions can be different. Then we have a problem to find the conditions on distortions under which the comparison of the two histograms is not changed. Methods: There are many approaches to comparison of histograms. The three popular proba- bilistic methods of comparison of histograms are considered in this paper: comparison of math- ematical expectations, comparison with help of principle of stochastic dominance, comparison with help of stochastic precedence. We consider the interval distortions of histograms in this paper. Results:The necessary and sufficient conditions of preservation for comparison of distorted his- tograms found with respect to different probability indices of comparison. The description of set of admissible distortions preserving the comparison of two histograms found. The characteristics of stability of histograms to distortion are introduced. These characteristics are calculated for histograms of USE (Unified State Exam) of applicants admitted in 2012 in Russian universities. It is shown that the stability of comparison of histograms to distortion can does not correspond to the values of difference index of comparison (margin). Conclusions: The found conditions invariability of comparing histograms can be used to es- timate the reliability of results of different rankings, data processing, etc. in terms of different types of uncertainty: stochastic uncertainty, the uncertainty associated with the distortion of the data in filling data gaps, etc.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.