Эффективность российских банков с точки зрения минимизации издержек
Object: Modeling and analysis of production function for branches of Russian industry. Methods: correlated and regression analysis. Results: Three production functions were constructed: for manufacturing industry, for extractive industry and for production and distribution electricity, gas and water. The analysis of the coefficients shows that the main growth factor of manufacturing industry is labor. For the extractive industry a role of capital is more important. Scientific newness: Production functions for three branches of Russian industry were ware constructed. The way to construct a production function based on Russian statistic was suggested. The conclusions about growth factors for manufacturing and extractive industries were made. Substance: The model helps to forecast growth of Russian industry because of changes in the productive factors.
Procedures of minimization of the total costs/penalties caused by service of orders in links of chains of deliveries are presented. They are discussed and formalized for the first time with reference to models when it is necessary to consider variable tariffs of such penalties at their decrease in time under the scheme of continuous percent.
Previous empirical research has developed stochastic electoral models for Israel, Turkey, and other polities. The work suggests that convergence to an electoral center (often predicted by electoral models) is a nongeneric phenomenon. In an attempt to explain nonconvergence, a formal model based on intrinsic valence is presented. This theory showed that there are necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. The necessary condition is that a convergence coefficient c is bounded above by the dimension w of the policy space, while a sufficient condition is that the coefficient is bounded above by 1. This coefficient is defined in terms of the difference in exogenous valences, the “spatial coefficient”, and the electoral variance. The theoretical model is then applied to empirical analyses of elections in the United States and Britain. These empirical models include sociodemographic valence and electoral perceptions of character trait. It is shown that the model implies convergence to positions close to the electoral origin. To explain party divergence, the model is then extended to incorporate activist valences. This extension gives a first-order balance condition that allows the party to calculate the optimal marginal condition to maximize vote share. We argue that the equilibrium positions of presidential candidates in US elections and by party leaders in British elections are principally due to the influence of activists, rather than the centripetal effect of the electorate.