Видо-временные формы глаголов в пропозиции комиссивов swear и promise
The article focuses on the aspectual verbal form of performative verbs 'swear' and 'promise' in the proposition of commissive utterances. The author emphasises the aspectual verbal forms relating to three temporal perspectives: present, future and past. The author also highlights the frequency and features of temporal perspectives in the proposition of verbs 'swear' and 'promise'.
The article elaborates an illocutive-interactional classification of speech acts forming the minimal unities of the pragmatic module of french dialogical discourse. The criterion of this classification is pragmatic modality understood as a category including two varieties: a) illocutive modality embracing all the components of the utterance connected with the expression of locutor’s intentions; b) interactional modality characterizing the degree of interlocutors’ involvement and representation in the act of communication.
The paper considers the less known aspects in the functioning of Russian lexical “xeno” markers, in particular, of the particle jakoby ‘allegedly, ostensibly’. Traditionally described as expressing the falsity of a proposition contained in somebody’s utterance, in conjunction with a negative assessment of the utterer as aware of its falsity, jakoby displays very different usages in the language of contemporary mass media. Namely, it is frequently used as a mere marker of evidentiality, without an obligatory assessment of the proposition as false or of its source as untruthful. In fact, it can even be used to refer to statements that are treated as true within the very same text, only to indicate that the source of this information is not the writer herself but somebody else (e.g., a different news agency), in what might be termed as “safety” strategy. Besides, jakoby in its mass media usages demonstrates unusual syntactic behaviors, namely shifts in scope, where it is placed before the speech verb rather than before the challenged proposition: jakoby utverzhdat’, chto P ‘jakoby claim that P’ instead of utverzhdat’, chto jakoby P ‘claim that jakoby P’. However, the study of the Russian-English parallel corpus reveals that these usages are not as unusual as they may appear. In Russian translations of English texts jakoby sometimes functions as a translation of the English supposedly, allegedly, ostensibly or other (e.g., verbal) markers of uncertainty, but more frequently occurs with no apparent stimulus in the source, merely to mark indirect quotation. It appears therefore that there is a certain need in the Russian language for a neutral evidentiality marker. It is occasionally filled with jakoby, which in this case displays a tendency for grammaticalization: it expresses that the source of information is other than the speaker herself (but contains no other semantic components), and takes syntactic scope over the speech verb instead of the proposition it challenges.
The report presents the results of research into the speech act of invitation performed in English discourse. The analysis focuses on the language means of expressing an invitation in different communicative situations, special emphasis being placed on the communicative strategy of distancing which is used with the aim of softening unambiguous invitations. The empiric material for our investigation was selected from authentic works of English-speaking writers of the 21-st century, to be more precise, from the novels by Joan Rowling and Richelle Mead. The research is conducted within the framework of communicative linguistics, the theory of speech acts and pragmalinguistics.
The question of the predicate nature in the judgment from the logical-linguistic viewpoint has been dealt with in the investigations of many linguists. Although a number of issues have been analyzed and discussed much, there is no common consideration and no accurate classification of predicate types yet.
This paper is an attempt to establish predicate nature and predicate classification and its role in the modus structure of the sentence. To understand the predicate nature better it should be considered a compound sentence, which manifests itself in its division into modus and dictum. This results in a new prospect of reconsideration of the cognitive, semantic, and syntactic aspects of the compound sentence.
This article is devoted to the analysis of verbal peculiarities of communicative strategy Directive in English discourse. The historically formed peculiarities of English-speaking communicants’ attitude toward the ways of expressing directive are also distinguished in order to highlight their culturological originality. The main focus is directed towards the lingual expressions of directive in different communicative situations. Considerable emphasis is given to the means of softening and avoiding of direct imperative constructions as part of the strategy of distancing. The empiric material for our research is represented by authentic literature of English-speaking countries of the 21-st century.
The paper describes Kalmyk complex predicates, based on the empirical data of linguistic fieldwork. The focus of this investigation is on the semantics and morphosyntactic properties of the complex predicates in Kalmyk. In Kalmyk, several auxiliaries (bää‑ ‘to be’, jov‑ ‘to go’, kevt‑ ‘to lie’ and suu‑ ‘to sit’) belong to the imperfective domain. Perfective semantics is the basis for complex predicates with the primary verbs ork‑ ‘to put’ and od‑ ‘to go away’, whereas the verbs av‑ ‘to take’ and ög‑ ‘to give’ express reflexive benefactive and benefactive meanings. The verb xaj‑ ‘to throw’ expresses intensivity and pluractionality. The study shows that the Kalmyk aspectual system arose as a result of grammaticalization.