El cuadro sociologico de la sociedad de Espana
Nuestro país ha cambiado más en 20 años que en los dos últimos siglos. Las transformaciones que hemos vivido durante la democracia (la transición española)* y los cambios que ha traído la integración en el Mercado Europeo se han sucedido con gran
velocidad y han afectado a todas las facetas de la sociedad. El español de los 90 es más tolerante y está abierto a nuevas ideas a la vez que se mantiene fiel a su cultura y tradición. Tal vez por ello no parecemos muy satisfechos con la integración en Europa.
Según el estudio sobre la Realidad Social en España, del Centro de Investigaciones sobre la realidad social (Cires), el porcentaje de personas que creen que la integración europea no ha beneficiado a España es el de un 59%. Sin embargo, esta insatisfacción no parece afectarnos excesivamente. La mayoría de los espaňoles se declaran felices y contentos con su vida. Más de un tercio elegirían ser lo que son si volvieran a nacer. Más de la mitad no desean parecerse a nadie. Pero veamos en qué hemos cambiado según los diferentes ámbitos de vida.
The article deals with the influence of Spanish Constitution in 1812 to constitutional ideas and projects of the Decembrists. It is represented in the historical context of the interest to foreign constitutional experience of Russian society in the first quarter of the XIX century. The author analyzes the impact of the Constitution of 1812 to the ‘Russkaya Pravda” (Russian Truth) written by P.Pestel, one of the leaders of the Southern secret society, which is detected in borrowing some ideas for the design of the constitutional and legal institutions. Particular attention is given to the constitutional draft of N.Muraviov, a member of the Northern secret society. All three editions of his projects were influenced by the Constitution of 1812. It is noticed in following: first, in the literal reproduction of the two articles of the Spanish law in the first and second editions, and secondly, the Spanish experience was borrowed in all three editions of the project to formalize various constitutional institutions (the status of the emperor, the right to vote and others).
El español aunque tiene muy poco que ver en muchos aspectos con los habitantes del norte y centro de Europa, es europeo y latino, por su historia y por su cultura. A pesar de todo, algunos dicen que «África empieza en los Pirineos», y esto se debe a la dominación árabe de duración de casi ocho siglos. Para mucha gente, los españoles son personas pequeñas, morenas que pasan la vida cantando y bailando flamenco, son muy aficionados a la corridas de toros, que les gusta mucho perder el tiempo hablando de todo en las tertulias en la sobremesa y que cuando están contentos, que es muy frecunte, dicem «olé». Esta idea es falsa.
This article investigates responses of Soviet schoolchildren of middle and older ages towards the Spanish Civil War and the arrival of Republican children to the USSR in the second half of the 1930s. Interest in reactions of this age category is connected with the fact that soon after they would bear the brunt of sacrifices in the struggle with Nazi Germany and received the status of front-line generation. Emotionally perceived events in a distant country became the source of its ideas about the future total war of the USSR and an important frontier in psychological preparation for it. Despite the refusal of the country’s political leadership to foment a revolution in Spain, this idea was guiding for young Soviet citizens. The Republican struggle, meaningful as an outbreak of world revolution, gave rise to their various manifestations of solidarity, including the collection of funds, attempts of individual and group escapes to Spain, and the self-organization of paramilitary units to join international teams. In the light of the dramatic experience of the Spanish Republicans, the future of the communist project among Soviet youth was now linked only to the fierce war that the Soviet Union was to withstand with some not necessarily decisive support from the progressive world community.
At the present stage, cooperation between Mexico and Spain is multifaceted and effective. Both countries maintain economic, trade and cultural ties, at the same time possessing the various mechanisms for bilateral dialogue and assistance, which together form one of the most multifaceted institutional structures in the world. To date, the status of a natural ally of Spain is one of the central tasks for Mexico. The article examines the key aspects of the cooperation between these countries considering that the Mexican economy is in the midst of the ”destabilizing effect” because of the policy of the new US president Donald Trump, which threatens the political and economic achievements of Mexican-Spanish relations.
The article is devoted to the influence of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 to the constitutionalism of the Russian Empire in the first quarter of the XIX. The author demonstrates the attention of different circles of Russian society to the national liberation movement of the Spanish people against France in 1808-1814 and to the Revolution of 1820-1823 in Spain as well as the Spanish events coverage in the Russian press. Effect of inspiring of the Fundamental law of 1812, enacted in Spain also in 1820 is noticed to be an example for the Russians to pursue for their Motherland. Particular attention is given to the constitutional ideas of members of secret societies, the future of the Decembrists, the motion of which is studied in the context of the "military revolution" in Europe. The researcher analyzes the influence of the Spanish constitution of 1812 on P.Pestel, author of "Russkaya Pravda" (project of the Southern secret society) and N. Muraviev who prepared the constitutional project, which we can study in three editions.
The book consists of chapters (articles) devoted the South-European constitutionalism of 1812, when two constitutions were adopted (in Spain and Sicily). Napoleon at that time not only won a few countries, but founded new states, gifted constitutions to some new and old states. Adoptions of constitutions in Cadiz and in Palermo in 1812, were events of extraordinary importance. They demonstrated a protest against Napoleonic wars and defense the right of nations to decide their future and way of development.