Семья и школа (о механизмах передачи калмыцкого языка)
This paper addresses the issue of shortened form of negative markers in Kalmyk. Mongolic languages have a very elaborate system of negative markers, partly inherited from the Old / Middle Mongolian negation. The current study is based on the field data from the Ketchenerovsky region, Republic of Kalmykia, as well as on two corpora (Kalmyk National Corpus and the National Corpus of Kalmyk Language). It presents a study of negative markers bišǝ and -šǝ and uga andgorespectively. The study shows that there is a distribution of full and constructed version of negative markers. Full forms occur with nouns and in nonverbal predication while affixes are used mainly in verbal sentences. The distribution is also tied to several pragmatic and modal factors, for example, the marker bišǝis used with future participle ending on -xto express the emphatic form with modal meaning, while the contracted form -šǝ with this participle is the neutral way to express negation.
Bilingual education including, on the one hand, access to dominating language, and, on the other, - teaching in minority languages or teaching only languages themselves at school is an important part of language politics of a state. In many regions we observe a paradoxical situation: school education does not promote acquisition of a disappearing language, though it is highly valued by members of community. The article considers features of teaching minority languages at school in the Russian Federation on two examples - Nivkh and Kalmyk. Interviews with parents, pupils, former pupils and teachers allow to describe teaching native language at school as a procedure of maintaining identity of community.
Four electronic corpora created in 2011 within the framework of the “Corpus Linguistics: the Albanian, Kalmyk, Lezgian, and Ossetic Languages” Program of Fundamental Research of the RAS are presented. The interface and functionalities of these corpora are described, engineering problems to be solved in their creation are elucidated, and the promises of their development are discussed. A particular emphasis is made on the compilation of dictionaries and automatic grammatical markup of the corpora.