The Presidentialization of Kazakh Political Parties
The chapter examines the specifics and limits of presidentialization of parties in Kazakhstan. The strong influence of clan elites on party politics is emphasized. The basis of the state structure of Kazakhstan is an informal ‘constitution’ based on agreements and economic and political interests of the clans. Nursultan Nazarbayev, who was the permanent President of Kazakhstan from 1991 to February 2019, had a huge impact on the country’s domestic and foreign policy through the ruling Nur Otan party, of which he was the chairman. The authors explain why, with the advent of Kassym-jomart Tokayev to the post of President and after the final departure of Nazarbayev from the political sphere, the Nur Otan party found itself in a difficult position and reveal the features of the personalization of its leadership.