Европа XVI-XVII вв
Stretching from the end of the Middle Ages to the Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1500-1900), the authors in this volume analyze spiritual kinship in Europe and its associated social customs - with special attention given to godparenthood. These customs had great importance for Early Modern and Modern European societies, and this collection represents an interdisciplinary effort to combine the work of social and economic historians, historical demographers, anthropologists and sociologists. Arranged chronologically and geographically, chapters cover specific areas of the European continent, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Reconstructing changes in theological thought about spiritual kinship, particularly before and after the Reformation, and comparing Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox views and practices, Spiritual Kinship in Europe provides a comprehensive picture of how social practices and religious ideas related to spiritual kinship and godparenthood.
The various aspects of the relationship between Russia and the United States, Russia and countries of the European Union in the context of the Syrian crisis are analyzed. The role of international institutions (UN, NATO, EU) in conflict transformation process examined. Particular attention is paid to the prospects of cooperation between Russia and the West to repel the threat posed by the ISIL.
The magazine analyses processes, defining the present and future of European continent, the perspectives of the European project, in the circumstances of geopolitical uncertainty, the evolution of a modern system of European security, exacerbating external and internal contradictions, military-political and economic problems in Transatlantic relations.
European countries are culturally close, still showing great variance in political participation rates as well as in predominant religions and state-church relations experience, what makes this region a good case for comparative research. Given this, it becomes important to study if members of different confessions differ in political participation rates, or the main cleavage lies between religious and non-religious people regardless of religious tradition? Does Orthodoxy really lead to lower levels of political participation or what we see is the effect of political regime or Communist legacy? Statistical analysis results suggest that regular attendance of religious services and praying does increase chances to participate in politics. This pattern holds for followers of all major European religious traditions and in countries with different predominant religions. On the other hand, most inter-confessional differences in political participation appear weak and unstable, while both belonging to an Orthodox religious tradition and living in a predominantly Orthodox state exert a stable and negative effect on political participation. Additional tests suggest that there is no difference in political participation between Orthodox Christians from predominantly Orthodox states and those where they form only a minority. Consequently, it is something in a religious tradition itself that decreases political participation.
Taking the individual data from the European Social Survey of 2004 and 2010, the authors of this paper investigate how employment type (permanent, temporary or informal employment) affects subjective well-being in respect to employment protection legislation across European countries. Our study outcomes are in line with previous research disclosing the negative impact of being temporally or informally employed on subjective well-being. The additional contribution of this study is the rigorous analysis of how employment protection legislation (EPL) moderates this effect by applying the multilevel modeling approach for 27 countries. In countries with strict EPL temporary and informal workers are significantly less satisfied with their lives than permanent employees. In countries with liberal EPL no significant decreasing effect from temporary or informal employment on people’s subjective well-being was found.
This paper analyzes the relationship between internet use and cultural consumption in Europe. Much research was made in order to disentangle the impact of internet upon everyday life. At the same time, the results of these studies differ. On the one hand, internet is reported as a substitution for traditional forms of social interactions. On the other hand, plethora of papers report positive effects of internet on social activity and leisure, and define online practices as a part of emerging cultural capital. Along with it, the relationship between online-practices and corresponding offline-practices still lacks research. In this work we use the example of cultural practices of cinema, concerts and opera attendance to reveal the impact of internet use for cultural purposes. In particular, we analyzed the relationship of downloading/watching films online and downloading/listening to music online. Using Eurobarometer 79.2 data we found that online music and film consumption is positively related to corresponding offline activities. At the same time, this relationship is moderated by other social features such as age, size of the area where the respondent lives and also by the level of country development.
The volume focuses on the ways in which natural objects were transformed into specimens, assembled as collections and were defined by a broad variety of cultural, political, and social contexts of the eighteenth – twentieth century Europe. The contributors examine a broad range of natural history collections – from mineralogical collections of the pre-revolutionary France to craniological specimens gathered by nineteenth century naturalists in the Caucasus. Geographically, the volume considers two distinctive geographic areas. Some of the papers focus on lesser known museums and botanical gardens in France and Belgium, while other papers deal with collections gathered in those parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus that in the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries were parts of the Russian empire. The authors analyse the political dimension of the collection-making process, its spatial and material aspects, the meaning of collections in academic research and popular imagination, the technicalities and symbolic aspects of the object’s transformation into a specimen, as well as the relations between specimens and collections
This article examines that all basic elements of a post-bipolar European system of collective security have been put to the test. This is largely due to the accumulation of a certain amount of “dysfunctions” and “threats” within the post-bipolar security system itself.