Мир в зените Средневековья
The second volume of the 4 volumes series "Handbuch zur Geschichte der Konfliktlösung in Europa (Handbook of the History of Conflict Resolution in Europe)" deals with the period of the Middle Ages. A whole range of problems, regions and topics is covered. The project includes mane international authors.
This article is dedicated to the visigothic symphony, incarnated in the last canon of IV council of Toledo, when the Church took a possibility to form an ideology and to influence the reality. TheparticipantsoftheIVcouncilofToledodecreed that a king must be elected by bishops and nobility, and this fact testifies theirs political ambitions. AtonetheChurch (representedby most educated bishops, for example, Isidore of Seville and his disciples) imagines itself as protector of right king. Theparticipantsofcouncil created an ideal of governor, and the real king was obliged to follow it, otherwise he may deprive himself of the Churchs supporting. Butthejustandmerciful king disposed of Churchs defence: and the state criminal, who had encroached upon his life and throne, where anathematized. The ideas, formulated on IV council of Toledo, were developed in the kings code of law (Liber Iudiciorum), promulgated in 654.
In this article I study medieval concepts of locus studii: how they were constructed, proclaimed and discussed by social actors before producing any real university space in the first Iberian higher schools. I mark out three general types of university spatial concepts in early juridical documents from the universities of Palencia, Salamanca, Lisbon-Coimbra and Lleida. The first group is connected to the universal locale of the studium: “light of science” and scholars’ privileges should extend over the whole Christian world. In political rhetoric “universal” locus studii (that was based on the authorities of the Pope or Emperor) was imitated by temporal sovereigns. The second type of loci studii is a city. Such conceptions (including civitas regia) considered urban space as integrated and homogeneous place of university activity leaving municipal law out of account. The third group described locus limitadus, a special university quarter. In the last part of my article I observe the use of spatial concepts in social and legal practices of Iberian medieval university corporations/