Local Autonomy in the 21st Century. Between Tradition and Modernisation This book is the proceedings of the conference in Vilnius, organised by the Observatory on Local Autonomy (OLA: www.ola-europe.com), in partnership with the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR: www.ccre.org), on “Local Autonomy in Europe”. Its aim is to offer a legal, political, and managerial vision of the organisation of local governments in Europe with the objective of establishing a typology of local administration systems. This is because it is pointless to provide concrete comparisons of local public service administration and its management in Europe without having adequate knowledge of the current situation. Taking stock of what is already in place consists of establishing a purely statistical (and thus theoretical) vision of the way municipalities and regions are divided up so that it is possible to study the current state of local government systems and their evolution in light of the numerous reforms currently under way both in terms of the division of powers and responsibilities between national and local governments and the division of material, human, and financial (including tax) resources.