Методы исследования этнических предубеждений
Social beliefs are notions about the nature of other people, their behavior, and the way one should respond to their actions. Social beliefs include beliefs in dangerous world (a view of society as chaotic, unpredictable, and aggressive) and jungle world (a view of other people as lying and manipulative agents trying to “win against” one). This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to check the structural validity of Russian versions of two scales by J. Duckitt, measuring beliefs in dangerous and jungle world. The participants were students of universities from Moscow and Kazan region, as well as employees of commercial organizations (N = 1938, mean age 20.2). The respondents completed a 12-item Russian version of dangerous world belief scale and a 20-item Russian version of jungle world belief scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to investigate the structure. For the dangerous world belief scale, a secondorder order factor model (with two first-order factors) for the full questionnaire showed the best fit. For the jungle world beliefs scale, a second-order factor model (also with two first-order factors) was developed for a subset of 12 items. The authors discuss the compatibility of social beliefs scales with Russian cultural context.
Ethnic prejudices is a crucial factor affecting the relationship between ethnic groups. To measure blatant ethnic prejudice questionnaires are used which include questions and statements that reflect different aspects of negative attitudes towards ethnic groups. Since most of these techniques were created in North America and Western Europe, they reflect the content of ethnic prejudices prevalent in these regions, and need cultural adaptation. The aim of this study is to adapt the scale of blatant and subtle prejudice by Pettigrew and Meertens (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) for a Russian sample. The study included a pilot phase and a main phase. Participants of the pilot phase (N = 354) filled out the original version of the questionnaire translated into Russian, evaluating migrants who arrived in Russia from Central Asia and the Caucasus. The results showed the low structural validity of the original version of the scale. Participants of the main phase of the study (N = 402) filled out a modified version of the questionnaire, which included 28 statements that form six scales. The results showed that the highest structural validity is exhibited by a five-factor model, which includes the following scales: the perceived economical threat, the perceived physical threat, the avoidance of close contact, the perceived problems in adaptation, the exaggeration of cultural differences. The results demonstrated that Russian prejudices against migrants from Central Asia and the Caucasus are associated with relative deprivation, ethnic identity and the intensity of intergroup contact. The structure of the methodology is universal and the link between individual factors and variables depend on the group that serves as the object of prejudice. In particular, relative deprivation and the number of contacts are more tightly linked to prejudice against migrants form Central Asia than prejudice against migrants from the Caucasus.