Османская административно-правовая система на Балканах (XV-XVIII века)
The article is dedicated to the functioning of the law and local government system which was created by the Ottomans to control their Balcan lands. Local conflict management is considered in the multiethnic and multiconfessional environment. The paper also focuses on the synthesis of secular and Islamic traditions in Ottoman legislature, as well as the way law influenced the historical development of the Balcan nations.
The major challenge of local governments in the eight countries under review (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine) over the past twenty years has been adjusting to the narrowing role and size of government, and the resulting reduction in local resources, while attempting to maintain the high quality of social services provided at the local level during the Soviet period.
During the last years, positive trends have been seen in some countries in the field of decentralization. In Armenia, the list of local taxes and duties was enlarged in 2010. In Ukraine, the concept of Local Government Reform was recently approved, and a new framework for local self-government legislation is currently being developed. In 2010, Belarus adopted a law on Local Government and Self-government.
However, in other countries, centralization tendencies are being observed: a reduced level of tax autonomy in Russia, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia; a nomination of local self-government heads by the central government in Kyrgyzstan; the reorganization of local governments in Georgia; as well as limitations to expenditure autonomy of local governments in Russia.
The recent financial crisis has revealed weaknesses within the local finance system of some of the Eurasian countries, while in other countries local budgets seem to be doing better than central/regional ones due to their reliance on the most stable revenues sources.
This volume offers a profound analysis of post-socialist economic and political transformation in the Balkans, involving deeply unequal societies and oligarchical “democracies.” The contributions deconstruct the persistent imaginary of the Balkans, pervasive among outsiders to the region, who see it as no more than a repository of ethnic conflict, corruption and violence. Providing a much needed critical examination of the Yugoslav socialist experience, the volume sheds light on the recent rebirth of radical politics in the Balkans, where new groups and movements struggle for a radically democratic vision of society.
It is obvious that most of the Balkan countries are experiencing a challenging transition period from communism toward democracy. This transition is a long process and includes transition in social, economic, political and many other areas that are all within the scope of the 4th International Conference on European Studies (ICES'13).
Article devoted to analysis the role and significance of Tatar-born Russian officials in gathering information about state and law of the Central Asian khanates – Bukhara, Khiva, Khoqand in the 18th-19th cc. on the examples of M.Bekchurin, M.Aitov and I.Batyrshin. All of them served as officials of the Orenburg Frontier Commission, two of them were diplomats in Bukhara and Khiva, last one contacted with informers from abovementioned khanates. The common feature for them was that they were Turks and Moslems. Firstly that fact provided Central Asian population’s sympathies to them (including favor of representatives of the ruling elites of the khanates) and gave an opportunity to gather more useful information. Secondly, as representatives of the Turkic-Islamic culture they could better understand and estimate the level of political and legal development of the Central Asian khanates and prepare impartial reports for their chiefs. Also it’s necessary to notice that their affiliation with Turkic-Islamic world didn’t influence on quality of fulfillment of missions by such officials: they tried all ways to contribute to realization of the Russian policy in the Central Asia and advance of the Russian Empire in this region.
The problem of optimizing the size of municipalities in order to achieve the greatest administration efficiency is raised. The results of socio-economic survey of five small villages in Slovakia are sited, basing the identification of the factors that contribute to and limit the process of merging small municipalities.
In this article the method of credit rating models creation in the context of low default portfolios is presented as exemplified by rating model for local and regional governments of the Russian Federation. The authors also describe calibration process with use of the relevant formulas in an explicit form and prove them.
Local government reform has changed the administrative-territorial structure of the country. Revolutionary change was noticed neither nationals nor the state. The reform of local government came a new reality. Must be closely monitored and the study of this new reality. Need to send a description of the already existing diversity of social, economic and territorial forms of social organization. Our lives can not squeeze into the norms of the existing laws. We certainly seem inadequate attempts to develop a standardized system of local government by the capital experts. They know about the local government only that it is somewhere abroad. There can not be a uniform system of local government for the vast country. we should not neglect the geographical, ethnic, political, cultural and economic diversity of life in the towns and villages of the Russian Federation.