Оборотни с указкой: культурные разрывы и конвенции в сталинской школе рубежа 1940-50-х.
The study is devoted to the analysis of Russians' actions to improve their financial situation in the conditions of the economic crisis caused by the pandemic. The empirical basis of the analysis was the data of surveys conducted by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences for several years, including a survey conducted in September 2020. Changes in the behavior of Russians in the conditions of various economic crises are demonstrated, in particular, the decline in the popularity of the most universal ways to improve their financial situation, which were formed in the 1990s, related to casual earnings and subsidiary farming. It is also shown that, in contrast to the crisis of 2014-2016, in 2020 there was such a serious reduction in the sources of income of many previously well-off representatives of the mass strata of society that they had to change their behavior and look for additional sources of income. As a result, among the ways to improve their financial situation among representatives of the mass strata of the population, actions characteristic of relatively high — resource social groups have become more widespread-part-time work, overtime employment, the use of previously accumulated material and financial assets, as well as the widespread attraction of help from close associates in different strata. However, even the relatively wealthy representatives of the mass strata of the country's population gradually have fewer and fewer resources of their own, and for an increasing number of them, the only way to improve their financial situation is to intensify employment for hire. However, an external barrier to its spread is the limited number of jobs that involve highly skilled and highly paid work and/or overtime pay.
The main issue of the article is an analysis of the adaptive behavior of the modern Russian population. The author deals with the data of the eighth wave of the all-Russian monitoring study by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. As the author states, eleven adaptation strategies can be distinguished. Their specificities depend on the degree of people’s activities, their material and nonmaterial resources capacity, place of residence, age, and professional characteristics. The paper argues that, when choosing adaptation strategies, Russian people act rationally and try to maximize the utility of available resources. If a lack of resources occurs, people increase the work- or debt load. At the same time, their adaptation activity is restrained by the specifics of the local and global socio-economic institutions. The place in the stratification hierarchy influences the choice of an adaptation strategy and its effectiveness in two aspects – the ability to accumulate assets necessary for adaptation, and the sufficiency of these assets to reduce the risks inherent in the life of a particular individual. Representatives of the upper strata can choose the most comfortable strategy for themselves, and the Russians from the middle, and especially the lower strata almost do not have any choice of such strategies. As a result, the uneven distribution of life chances and risks in modern Russian society leads to unequal opportunities in the selection of successful strategies affording to maintain and increase material wellbeing, which leads to further growth of social inequalities. At the same time, the nonconsistency of the status position (relatively high rates of life chances and risks at the same time) leads to a desire to change the institutional environment, what in Russian conditions means the appearance of an idea of internal migration or emigration. This idea is the most common for the most prosperous part of society.