Online mode of data collection provides greater variability of questionnaire visualization tools than the traditional "paper" format. This determines that researchers should be aware about how various elements of the questionnaire design affect the quality of data collected via online surveys. This article presents an overview of the Russian and foreign studies on the answer to this question. We consider following aspects: (1) visual design of the screen, (2) layout of rating questions, (3) visualization of open-ended questions, (4) presentation of non-substantive response options. In conclusion we make a number of recommendations concerning the questionnaire design features that can help researchers to make their surveys more effective, and to increase the data quality.
The results of the Russian Census of 2010 lay on the table several topics requiring further discussion. Prerequisites for this discussion are the change of the administrative-territorial structure of Russia after the reform of municipal government in 2006 and the amendments to the Census Law made prior to Census 2010. During 2002-2010 increase in rural population was almost twice higher than that in urban areas: +11% and +6.3% correspondingly. Rural population increased up to 30-50% in some municipalities, while changes of the urban population were fairly minor or even negative over the intercensal period. This significant rise in the rural population could be related with changes concerning data capture of the population living in collective households. This ‘non-demographic’ factor distorts denominator for demographic rates for municipalities, affects on an allocation budget funds depending on the population in the municipality.
The edition includes two documents. The first one contains a list of 17 questions that users of the survey data should be asked to draw conclusions about the validity of the results. The proposed system of criteria is applicable to assess the quality of the results of almost any survey. The second paper deals with qualities of the data, which the social media are ready to provide the students of public opinion. Both documents were prepared by the AAPOR working group on emerging technologies (Emerging Technologies Task Force), whose activities had to focus on two key areas: (1) smartphones as devices data collection, (2) social media as a platform and information resource.