Соперничество городских концов как фактор культурной истории Новгорода XII-XIII вв.
This is the publication of several Early Old Russian graffiti-inscriptions from the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod with paleographic, linguistic and historical commentary. It includes the revised text of a 13-lines-long prayer (graffito № 206); an inscription mentioning the Turkic name Sanbdusb; a new Glagolitic graffito from the Martirievskaia Porch; two inscriptions by church assistants mentioning their Slavic non-Christian names; a graffito dated 6614 (AD 1106/1107).
In the present article two eleventh-century phrases inscribed many times on the walls of the St Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (коуни рони and парехъ мари) are shown to be of Semitic provenance. The authors provide the linguistic arguments which support the claim of a Hebrew source for коуни рони and a Syriac one for парехъ мари. In addition, we offer a reconstruction of the historical pragmatic context in which the phrases can be situated. It is proposed that the коуни рони inscriptions can be connected with the seizure of Novgorod and the plundering of St Sophia by Vseslav of Polotsk in the year 1066. They should be regarded as the oldest tangible proof of contacts with Jews and Hebrew in Rus’. In the case of the парехъ мари inscriptions, the hypothesis is put forward that the author was a certain Efrem, a local citizen, possibly a clergyman, who was a Syrian by descent.
The 12th volume of the series contains the texts of Novgorod birch-bark documents N 916-1062 unearthed in the course of the excavations of 2001-2014, as well as those found in Staraya Russa (N 37-45). Most of the published documents originate from the Troicky excavation site and are dated to the 12th century. The core of the volume is formed by the documents from the estate Ж, where the concentration of birch-bark letters is significantly higher than at any other medieval Novgorod estate explored so far. Of special importance are two deposits: financial and economic records of Yakim (second half of the 12th century) comprising the largest set of document written by one hand, and correspondence of Luke, Ivan and Snovid (mid 12th century) containing fine examples of Early Rus’ merchants’ correspondence. The texts of the documents are published with comprehensive linguistic and historical commentary. The second part of the book contains corrections to the readings and interpretations of the birch-bark documents published in the previous volumes of the series as well as updating of some of tables of extra-stratigraphic dating published in the 10th volume. The volume also contains a linguistic index and a list of conventional dates of the published documents.
The combination of the names «Alexander and Isakios» in the final clause of the Preface to the Younger Recension of the First Novgorod Chronicle (N1) is explained as indirectly referring to the names of two prominent Novgorodians of late 14th – early 15th centuries – posadnik Alexander the Caeser and boyar Isak Okinfov. Genealogical ambitions of the competing boyar clans is regarded as a factor that caused the inclusion into the Novgorod Episcopal Chronicle of the angiographic tales of St. Alexander Nevsky and Mikhail Chernigovskij, as well as of the account of the Kulikovo battle. The compiling of the protograph of N1 is shown to have preceded that of the Novgorod-Sophia Compilation (protograph of the Sophia 1 and Novgorod 4 chronicles) and is presumably dated to the short period of Novgorod’s loyalty to Moscow in 1397 which also saw the culmination of the careers of Alexander the Caeser and Isak Okinfov.