Современные модели новой экономической географии: внешнеторговый аспект
We modify Paul Krugman’s (1991, J. Polit. Econ 9(3), 483-99) ‘Core-Periphery’ model by replacing the traditional competitive sector by a monopolistically competitive one. We show that the structure of spatial equilibria remains the same as in the original model. This result continues to hold true under Cournot or Bertrand oligopolistic competition with free entry in the traditional sector. The key factor that explains why the nature of competition in the traditional sector does not matter for the spatial equilibria is constant expenditure shares - due to nested Cobb-Douglas and CES preferences - which imply that trade in the traditional sector is independent from its sectoral characteristics.
The article analyzes population dynamics differences of so-called «small areas» in the context of center-periphery conception in Russia in 1989-2002 and 2002-2010. The population dynamics of cities, district centers and villages according to their distance from regional centers was reviewed. It is shown that depopulation is growing mostly while distancing from regional centers, however, in some cases it is not. The article suggests an explanation of revealed trend's violations.
The purpose of the paper is the systematization of new economic geography research, on the analysis of the agglomeration process in region. Priority of the paper is given to the influence of theoretical research. Scientific novelty of the work is to specify the theoretical and methodological foundations of the agglomeration process due to analyzing the new economic geography attitude. As agglomeration forces facilitating the concentration of economic activity is defined: internal economies of scale, the level of transportation cost, the migration of the mobile labor in response to the wage gap, the elasticity of labor supply, forward and backward linkages of different content and other factors. As important condition is considered the trade costs level between regions. This study suggests that the formation of theoretical models system explaining the agglomeration process is under intense development.
In order to understand a country as large and diverse as Russia, it is extremely important to consider spatial patterns of economic development. As Russia looks for new drivers of economic growth, it is important to understand the structural conditions that have defined economic development in Russia’s regions. This report uses the Economic Potential Index (EPI) methodology to identify the conditions that drive regional development. Economic potential is the level of productivity that is possible for a region to achieve given its structural endowments, which are characteristics that are hard to alter in the short run. The methodology used in this report combines quantitative analysis of drivers of productivity across regions with in-depth case studies that focus on the role of regional governments and institutions in converting endowments into economic outcomes. This methodology generates insights that are relevant for both national and regional governments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of regional development in Russia over the last 25 years and identifies “Russia-specific” national structural conditions that may affect regional development. The second chapter discusses the results of an assessment of economic potential at the regional level and the factors that shape it in Russia. The third chapter focuses on the role of national and regional governance, policy, and institutions in promoting economic development of the regions. The final chapter proposes policy priorities for both regional and national authorities.