Война во время мира: восприятие локальных конфликтов в Османской Македонии XVI-XVII вв.
The article is dedicated to the functioning of the law and local government system which was created by the Ottomans to control their Balcan lands. Local conflict management is considered in the multiethnic and multiconfessional environment. The paper also focuses on the synthesis of secular and Islamic traditions in Ottoman legislature, as well as the way law influenced the historical development of the Balcan nations.
If a power wishes to subdue a region, what can it do? Order its armies to annex it? Carve up the region into parts that are subsequently ruled by different great powers, or create new principalities as a tool for indirect power influence? Why not use ideology and economic strength to rule that same region instead? The volume demonstrates how the European powers of the 16 th - 19 th centuries oscillate between these different stances in their attitude towards the Balkans, at the same time leaving enough space for the smaller regional players - states and individuals alike - to exercise their local power and influence.
The application of «protective reservations» is a fundamental principle of modern codifications of the private international law. The post-graduate student of the Private International Law Department, Faculty of Laws, National Research University «The Higher School of Economics», the advocate E.A. Kruty (e-mail: email@example.com) minutely analyses provisions about the reservation about the public policy and mandatory rules which are included in the international acts and ten national codifications of XXI centuries (Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Estonia, Mongolia, Russia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Macedonia, Turkey). Despite the apparent prevalence of the negative construction of the reservation about the public policy the lawmaker prefers in some situations its positive variant. An appeal to codifications allows to identify the certain conditions on which protective reservations take effect. Their most detailed description is contained in the Belgian and Bulgarian codes. Not less interesting is a regulation of the legal consequences coming as a result of application of these legal institutions for private legal relations with a foreign element including in the international civil procedure.