Values: Cultural and Individual
This chapter presents and contrasts my individual-level and culture-level theories and suggests how to apply them fruitfully together. It is structured as follows: First, I explicate each theory, specifying its constructs and the relations among them and citing evidence to support them. Next, I compare the empirical structures obtained when the same values data are analyzed at the two levels of analysis and discuss how to interpret these structures as expressions of individual personality and of societal culture. I then contrast the causes of individual differences in basic values and the causes of societal differences in cultural orientations. Next, I present and illustrate the questions that cultural orientations are suited to address and the different questions that individual values are suited to address. Finally, I discuss and illustrate how multi-level analyses that exploit both types of values together can explain national and individual differences in behavior and attitudes.